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Figure 1: Characteristics of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). (a) Representative images of a single colony-forming unit of hPDLSCs at 12 days. (b) Immunocytochemical staining of the 3rd passage of hPDLSCs expressing vimentin but not CK18. (c-d) Multiple differentiation ability of hPDLSCs. hPDLSCs demonstrated by Alizarin red (c) and (d) Oil red O staining under specific differentiation conditions for osteoblasts or adipocytes. (e) Cell surface markers of hPDLSCs were detected by flow cytometry. Scale bar, 100 μm.