Table 2: Studies focusing on MSC-derived exosomes, their loading methods, therapeutic cargos, and biological function.

OriginDisease modelsBiological functionContributing factorsArtificial modification & loading methodsArticles

Mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs)Breast cancerSuppress angiogenesis and tumor progressionmiR-16/Lee et al. [35]

Human adult liver stem cells (HLSCs)HepatomaTransfer genetic information that interferes with the deregulated survival and proliferationmiR451, miR223, miR31, and so on/Fonsato et al. [33]

MSCsGliomaReduce glioma xenograft growth in rat brainmiR-146bTransfection and electroporationKatakowski et al. [65]

Mouse BM-MSCsPancreatic adenocarcinomaInhibit in vitro tumor growthPaclitaxelIncubationPascucci et al. [56]

Human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSCs)Bladder tumorDownregulated phosphorylation of Akt protein kinase and upregulated cleaved caspase 3 during the process of antiproliferation and proapoptosisAkt and caspase 3/Wu et al. [66]

MSCsLiver injuryInduces an anti-inflammatory effectCationized pullulanIncubationTamura et al. [59]

Mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) glioblastoma cells/Engineer exosomes containing Cre recombinase that have been used to identify functional delivery of exosomes across the blood-brain barrier to recipient neurons in the brainLabeling of a target protein, Cre recombinase, with a WW tagTransfectionSterzenbach et al. [57]

BM-MSCsColonic carcinoma gastric carcinomaPromote VEGF and CXCR4 expression in tumor cells through ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways//Zhu et al. [67]

Mouse immature dendritic cells (imDCs)Breast cancerTarget tumor therapyDoxorubicinElectroporation transfectionTian et al. [50]

Human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hucMSCs)Acute myocardial infarctionAccelerate endothelium cell proliferation, migration, and vessel formationPlatelet-derived growth factor D (PDGF-D)TransfectionMa et al. [55]

BM-MSCsStatus epilepticus (SE)Minimize the adverse effects of SE in the hippocampus and prevent SE-induced cognitive and memory impairments//Long et al. [68]

BM-MSCsAmeliorate inflammation-inducedpreterm brain injuryAmeliorate inflammation-induced neuronal cellular degeneration, reduce microgliosis, and prevent reactive astrogliosis//Drommelschmidt et al. [69]

hucMSCsPBMCsImmunosuppressive function//Monguio-Tortajada et al. [70]

Cardiomyocyte progenitor cell (CMPC) MSCsHuman microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)Proangiogenic effectsExtracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN)/Vrijsen et al. [29]

MSCsBreast cancerDeliver antagomiRs to chemosensitize the BCCs and to prevent dormancyAnti-miR-222/-223TransfectionBliss et al. [71]

BM-MSCsPBMCsIncorporated by monocytes, lowering the effect on lymphocyte populations//Di Trapani et al. [37]

BM-MSCsHepatocellular carcinoma, ovarian cancer, Kaposi’s sarcomaInduce in vitro cell cycle arrest and apoptosis or necrosis of different tumor cell lines and in vivo inhibit growth of established tumors//Bruno et al. [72]

BM-MSCsBreast cancerInduce dormant phenotypes through the suppression of a target gene, MARCKS, which encodes a protein that promotes cell cycling and motilitymiR-23b/Ono et al. [34]

hucMSCsHepatitis C virus (HCV)Suppress HCV RNA replicationlet-7f, miR-145, miR-199a, and miR-221/Qian et al. [36]

BM-MSCsOsteosarcomaSuppress the migration of the 143B osteosarcoma cell linemiR-143TransfectionShimbo et al. [54]