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Stem Cells International
Volume 2017, Article ID 8354640, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8354640
Review Article

Buccal Fat Pad as a Potential Source of Stem Cells for Bone Regeneration: A Literature Review

1Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Dental Research Center, Research Institute of Dental Sciences, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4University of Antwerp, The Team for Cleft and Craniofacial Anomalies, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
5Medical Nano-Technology & Tissue Engineering Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
6Faculty of Medicine, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

Correspondence should be addressed to Arash Khojasteh; moc.oohay@hetsajohkhsara

Received 3 December 2016; Revised 17 April 2017; Accepted 16 May 2017; Published 5 July 2017

Academic Editor: Heinrich Sauer

Copyright © 2017 Nasim Salehi-Nik et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Adipose tissues hold great promise in bone tissue engineering since they are available in large quantities as a waste material. The buccal fat pad (BFP) is a specialized adipose tissue that is easy to harvest and contains a rich blood supply, and its harvesting causes low complications for patients. This review focuses on the characteristics and osteogenic capability of stem cells derived from BFP as a valuable cell source for bone tissue engineering. An electronic search was performed on all in vitro and in vivo studies that used stem cells from BFP for the purpose of bone tissue engineering from 2010 until 2016. This review was organized according to the PRISMA statement. Adipose-derived stem cells derived from BFP (BFPSCs) were compared with adipose tissues from other parts of the body (AdSCs). Moreover, the osteogenic capability of dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT) derived from BFP (BFP-DFAT) has been reported in comparison with BFPSCs. BFP is an easily accessible source of stem cells that can be obtained via the oral cavity without injury to the external body surface. Comparing BFPSCs with AdSCs indicated similar cell yield, morphology, and multilineage differentiation. However, BFPSCs proliferate faster and are more prone to producing colonies than AdSCs.