Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Stem Cells International
Volume 2017, Article ID 9497325, 16 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9497325
Review Article

The Effects of Different Factors on the Behavior of Neural Stem Cells

Department of Chemistry and Biology, College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Gan Wang; nc.ude.tdun@naggnaw

Received 8 August 2017; Accepted 18 October 2017; Published 20 November 2017

Academic Editor: Margherita Maioli

Copyright © 2017 Lixiang Huang and Gan Wang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. McKay, “Stem cells in the central nervous system,” Science, vol. 276, no. 5309, pp. 66–71, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. S. Han, D. Y. Kang, T. Mujtaba, M. S. Rao, and I. Fischer, “Grafted lineage-restricted precursors differentiate exclusively into neurons in the adult spinal cord,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 177, no. 2, pp. 360–375, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. A. Cameron and R. D. McKay, “Restoring production of hippocampal neurons in old age,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 894–897, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Y. Lv, P. Zhao, G. Chen, Y. Sha, and L. Yang, “Effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on cell viability, proliferation and neural differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells-derived neural crest stem cells,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2201–2212, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Isono, M. Otsu, T. Konishi et al., “Proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells irradiated with X-rays in logarithmic growth phase,” Neuroscience Research, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 263–268, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. O. Bas, E. Odaci, H. Mollaoglu, K. Ucok, and S. Kaplan, “Chronic prenatal exposure to the 900 megahertz electromagnetic field induces pyramidal cell loss in the hippocampus of newborn rats,” Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 377–384, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. Nikolova, J. Czyz, A. Rolletschek et al., “Electromagnetic fields affect transcript levels of apoptosis-related genes in embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1686–1688, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. S. Aldad, G. Gan, X. B. Gao, and H. S. Taylor, “Fetal radiofrequency radiation exposure from 800-1900 mhz-rated cellular telephones affects neurodevelopment and behavior in mice,” Scientific Reports, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 312, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. A. Chang, J. W. Kim, J. A. Kim et al., “Biphasic electrical currents stimulation promotes both proliferation and differentiation of fetal neural stem cells,” PLoS One, vol. 6, no. 4, article e18738, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. H. Zhao, A. Steiger, M. Nohner, and H. Ye, “Specific intensity direct current (DC) electric field improves neural stem cell migration and enhances differentiation towards βIII-tubulin+ neurons,” PLoS One, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1–21, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. Abbasnia, A. Ghanbari, M. Abedian, A. Ghanbari, S. Sharififar, and H. Azari, “The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells,” Anatomy and Cell Biology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 104–113, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. P. Meng, T. Xu, F. J. Guo, W. F. Yin, and T. Peng, “The effects of high-intensity pulsed electromagnetic field on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells of neonatal rats in vitro,” Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology Medical Sciences [Medical Sciences], vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 732–736, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Y. M. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhang, S. B. Cheng, S. X. Chen, A. L. Chen, and C. Z. Tang, “Effect of acupuncture on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in brain tissues of rats with traumatic brain injury,” Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 132–136, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Jiang, W. Chen, Y. Zhang et al., “Acupuncture induces the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells in rats with traumatic brain injury,” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2016, Article ID 2047412, 8 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. N. Horie, K. So, T. Moriya et al., “Effects of oxygen concentration on the proliferation and differentiation of mouse neural stem cells in vitro,” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 833–845, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Y. J. Xiong, B. Yin, L. C. Xiao et al., “Proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells co-cultured with cerebral microvascular endothelial cells after oxygen-glucose deprivation,” Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences], vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 63–68, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. L. Yuan, Y. J. Guan, D. D. Ma, and H. M. Du, “Optimal concentration and time window for proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells from embryonic cerebral cortex: 5% oxygen preconditioning for 72 hours,” Neural Regeneration Research, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 1516–1522, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Cai, Y. Zhou, B. Zhou, and S. Lou, “Hypoxic conditioned medium from rat cerebral cortical cells enhances the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells mainly through PI3-K/Akt pathways,” PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 11, article e111938, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y. C. Si, Q. Li, C. E. Xie, X. Niu, X. H. Xia, and C. Y. Yu, “Chinese herbs and their active ingredients for activating xue (blood) promote the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells,” Chinese Medicine, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 13, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Chen, F. Wang, F. S. Lee, X. Wang, and M. Xie, “Separation and identification of water-soluble salvianolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge by high-speed counter-current chromatography and ESI-MS analysis,” Talanta, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 172–179, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. Guo, B. Li, Y. Wang et al., “Effects of salvianolic acid B on proliferation, neurite outgrowth and differentiation of neural stem cells derived from the cerebral cortex of embryonic mice,” Science China Life Sciences, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 653–662, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. Chun-sheng, Y. Hsiao-meng, H. Yun-hsiang, P. Chun, and S. Chi-fen, “Radix salviae miltiorrhizae and Rhizoma ligustici wallichii in coronary heart disease,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 43–46, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  23. Y. Tian, Y. Liu, X. Chen et al., “Tetramethylpyrazine promotes proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells from rat brain in hypoxic condition via mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway in vitro,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 474, no. 1, pp. 26–31, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. Yao, L. Zhang, X. Li, and L. Li, “Effects of epimedium flavonoids on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in vitro,” Neurological Research, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 736–742, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. C. Si, J. P. Zhang, C. E. Xie, L. J. Zhang, and X. N. Jiang, “Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on proliferation and differentiation of rat hippocampal neural stem cells,” The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 999–1013, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. Chen, X. Huang, W. Chen, N. Wang, and L. Li, “Tenuigenin promotes proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 771–777, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Baral, R. Pariyar, C. S. Yoon et al., “Effects of Gastrodiae rhizoma on proliferation and differentiation of human embryonic neural stem cells,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 792–797, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. Wang, Y. J. Zhang, Y. Feng et al., “Effect of astragaloside IV on neurogenesis in adult hippocampus of rats after transient forebrain ischemia,” Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 754–758, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  29. H. Yu, D.-y. Liu, Y.-l. Wu, J.-y. Cheng, and X.-h. Yang, “Effect of angelica on proliferation of neural stem cells from rats’ embryos in hypoxia model,” China Journal of Modern Medicine, vol. 15, no. 21, pp. 3226–3228, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  30. C. Dong, C. R. Rovnaghi, and K. J. Anand, “Ketamine alters the neurogenesis of rat cortical neural stem progenitor cells,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 2407–2416, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. H. Huang, L. Liu, B. Li et al., “Ketamine interferes with the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats,” Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 315–325, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. E. Toman and S. Spiegel, “Lysophospholipid receptors in the nervous system,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 27, no. 7-8, pp. 619–627, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Y. A. Hannun and L. M. Obeid, “Principles of bioactive lipid signalling: lessons from sphingolipids,” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 139–150, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. Tan, Z. Luo, Y. Yue et al., “Effects of FTY720 (Fingolimod) on proliferation, differentiation, and migration of brain-derived neural stem cells,” Stem Cells International, vol. 2016, Article ID 9671732, 10 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Mahmood, A. Goussev, H. Kazmi, C. Qu, D. Lu, and M. Chopp, “Long-term benefits after treatment of traumatic brain injury with simvastatin in rats,” Neurosurgery, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 187–191, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. Xie, D. Cong, X. Wang et al., “The effect of simvastatin treatment on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells after traumatic brain injury,” Brain Research, vol. 1602, pp. 1–8, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Zhan et al., “Hydrogen sulfide promotes proliferation and neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells and protects hypoxia-induced decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis,” Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, vol. 116, pp. 55–63, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. Y. Zhang, Q. He, J. Dong, Z. Jia, F. Hao, and C. Shan, “Effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on proliferation and differentiation of mouse cochlear neural stem cells: involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 88, pp. 267–273, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. K. Tiwari, S. Agarwal, B. Seth et al., “Inhibitory effects of bisphenol-A on neural stem cells proliferation and differentiation in the rat brain are dependent on Wnt/β-catenin pathway,” Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 1735–1757, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. Z. Wang, D. Liu, Q. Zhang et al., “Palmitic acid affects proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in vitro,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 574–586, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. A. de Wit, “An overview of brominated flame retardants in the environment,” Chemosphere, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 583–624, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. T. Li, W. Wang, Y. W. Pan, L. Xu, and Z. Xia, “A hydroxylated metabolite of flame-retardant PBDE-47 decreases the survival, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation of primary cultured adult neural stem cells and interferes with signaling of ERK5 MAP kinase and neurotrophin 3,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 111–124, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. B. G. Keselowsky, D. M. Collard, and A. J. Garcia, “Surface chemistry modulates focal adhesion composition and signaling through changes in integrin binding,” Biomaterials, vol. 25, no. 28, pp. 5947–5954, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. A. Scotchford, C. P. Gilmore, E. Cooper, G. J. Leggett, and S. Downes, “Protein adsorption and human osteoblast-like cell attachment and growth on alkylthiol on gold self-assembled monolayers,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 84–99, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. N. Faucheuxa, R. Schweissb, K. Lutzowa, C. Wernerb, and T. Groth, “Self-assembled monolayers with different terminating groups as model substrates for cell adhesion studies,” Biomaterials, vol. 25, no. 14, pp. 2721–2730, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. M. Curran, R. Chen, and J. A. Hunt, “Controlling the phenotype and function of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro by adhesion to silane-modified clean glass surfaces,” Biomaterials, vol. 26, no. 34, pp. 7057–7067, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. Y. J. Ren, H. Zhang, H. Huang et al., “In vitro behavior of neural stem cells in response to different chemical functional groups,” Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1036–1044, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. F. Doetsch, L. Petreanu, I. Caille, J. M. Garcia-Verdugo, and A. Alvarez-Buylla, “EGF converts transit-amplifying neurogenic precursors in the adult brain into multipotent stem cells,” Neuron, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1021–1034, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. Y. Chen, X. Wang, Z. Y. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, L. W. Chen, and Z. J. Luo, “Brain-derived neurotrophic factor stimulates proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells, possibly by triggering the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 30–41, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. G. Xuan, D. H. Long, H. G. Gu, D. D. Yang, L. P. Hong, and S. L. Leng, “BDNF improves the effects of neural stem cells on the rat model of Alzheimer’s disease with unilateral lesion of fimbria-fornix,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 440, no. 3, pp. 331–335, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. Y. H. Yan, S. H. Li, Z. Gao et al., “Neurotrophin-3 promotes proliferation and cholinergic neuronal differentiation of bone marrow- derived neural stem cells via notch signaling pathway,” Life Sciences, vol. 166, pp. 131–138, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. H. X. Lu, Z. M. Hao, Q. Jiao et al., “Neurotrophin-3 gene transduction of mouse neural stem cells promotes proliferation and neuronal differentiation in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. BR305–BR311, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. E. Cattaneo and R. McKay, “Proliferation and differentiation of neuronal stem cells regulated by nerve growth factor,” Nature, vol. 347, no. 6295, pp. 762–765, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. S. Q. Chen, Q. Cai, Y. Y. Shen, X. Y. Cai, and H. Y. Lei, “Combined use of NGF/BDNF/bFGF promotes proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in vitro,” International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, vol. 38, pp. 74–78, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. C. Swanton, “Cell-cycle targeted therapies,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 27–36, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. Ma, Z. Yu, W. Qu et al., “Proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells are selectively regulated by knockout of cyclin D1,” Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 35–43, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. Lim and P. Kaldis, “Loss of Cdk2 and Cdk4 induces a switch from proliferation to differentiation in neural stem cells,” Stem Cells, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 1509–1520, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. C. Loov, M. Fernqvist, A. Walmsley, N. arklund, and A. Erlandsson, “Neutralization of LINGO-1 during in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells results in proliferation of immature neurons,” PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 1, article e29771, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. Y. Yang, M. Marcello, V. Endris et al., “MEGAP impedes cell migration via regulating actin and microtubule dynamics and focal complex formation,” Experimental Cell Research, vol. 312, no. 12, pp. 2379–2393, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. E. Newey, V. Velamoor, E. E. Govek, and L. Van Aelst, “Rho GTPases, dendritic structure, and mental retardation,” Journal of Neurobiology, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 58–74, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. B. R. Carlson, K. E. Lloyd, A. Kruszewski et al., “WRP/srGAP3 facilitates the initiation of spine development by an inverse F-BAR domain, and its loss impairs long-term memory,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 2447–2460, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. H. Lu, Q. Jiao, Y. Wang et al., “The mental retardation-associated protein srGAP3 regulates survival, proliferation, and differentiation of rat embryonic neural stem/progenitor cells,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1709–1716, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. Q. Shen, S. K. Goderie, L. Jin et al., “Endothelial cells stimulate self-renewal and expand neurogenesis of neural stem cells,” Science, vol. 304, no. 5675, pp. 1338–1340, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. Sun, W. Zhou, D. Ma, and Y. Yang, “Endothelial cells promote neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation associated with VEGF activated Notch and Pten signaling,” Developmental Dynamics, vol. 239, no. 9, pp. 2345–2353, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. Y. B. Du, S. Zhang, T. Yu, G. W. Du, H. Zhang, and Z. Yin, “Wnt3a is critical for endothelial progenitor cell-mediated neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation,” Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 14, pp. 2473–2482, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. O. Butovsky, Y. Ziv, A. Schwartz et al., “Microglia activated by IL-4 or IFN-γ differentially induce neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis from adult stem/progenitor cells,” Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 149–160, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. T. Deierborg, L. Roybon, A. R. Inacio, J. Pesic, and P. Brundin, “Brain injury activates microglia that induce neural stem cell proliferation ex vivo and promote differentiation of neurosphere-derived cells into neurons and oligodendrocytes,” Neuroscience, vol. 171, no. 4, pp. 1386–1396, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. L. Luo, K. Guo, W. Fan et al., “Niche astrocytes promote the survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of co-transplanted neural stem cells following ischemic stroke in rats,” Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 645–650, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. H. J. Habisch, S. Liebau, T. Lenk, A. C. Ludolph, R. Brenner, and A. Storch, “Neuroectodermally converted human mesenchymal stromal cells provide cytoprotective effects on neural stem cells and inhibit their glial differentiation,” Cytotherapy, vol. 12, pp. 491–504, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. H. Lee, J. E. Kang, J. K. Lee, J. S. Bae, and H. K. Jin, “Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote proliferation and neuronal differentiation of Niemann–Pick type C mouse neural stem cells by upregulation and secretion of CCL2,” Human Gene Therapy, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 655–669, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. A. Ramon-Cueto and F. Valverde, “Olfactory bulb ensheathing glia: a unique cell type with axonal growth-promoting properties,” Glia, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 163–173, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. G. Wang, Q. Ao, K. Gong, H. Zuo, Y. Gong, and X. Zhang, “Synergistic effect of neural stem cells and olfactory ensheathing cells on repair of adult rat spinal cord injury,” Cell Transplantation, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1325–1337, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. P. Liu, R. H. Fu, H. H. Yu et al., “MicroRNAs regulation modulated self-renewal and lineage differentiation of stem cells,” Cell Transplantation, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1039–1045, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. H. Hermeking, “The miR-34 family in cancer and apoptosis,” Cell Death and Differentiation, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 193–199, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. M. M. Aranha, D. M. Santos, S. Sola, C. J. Steer, and C. M. Rodrigues, “miR-34a regulates mouse neural stem cell differentiation,” PLoS One, vol. 6, no. 8, article e21396, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. T. Le, H. Xie, B. Zhou et al., “MicroRNA-125b promotes neuronal differentiation in human cells by repressing multiple targets,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 29, no. 19, pp. 5290–5305, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. Y. Cui, Z. Xiao, J. Han et al., “MiR-125b orchestrates cell proliferation, differentiation and migration in neural stem/progenitor cells by targeting Nestin,” BMC Neuroscience, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 116, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. X. J. Xue and X. B. Yuan, “Nestin is essential for mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells,” Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 26–36, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. D. Park, A. P. Xiang, F. F. Mao et al., “Nestin is required for the proper self-renewal of neural stem cells,” Stem Cells, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2612–2171, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. E. Sonkoly, S. Mona, and A. Pivarcsi, “MicroRNAs and immunity: novel players in the regulation of normal immune function and inflammation,” Seminars in Cancer Biology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 131–140, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. W. Z. Xiao, A. Q. Lu, X. W. Liu, Z. Li, Y. Zi, and Z. W. Wang, “Role of miRNA-146 in proliferation and differentiation of mouse neural stem cells,” Bioscience Reports, vol. 35, no. 5, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. F. Gao, Y. F. Zhang, Z. P. Zhang et al., “miR-342-5p regulates neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation downstream to notch signaling in mice,” Stem Cell Reports, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1032–1045, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. R. J. Klose and A. P. Bird, “Genomic DNA methylation: the mark and its mediators,” Trends in Biochemical Sciences, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 89–97, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. C. Liu, Z. Q. Teng, N. J. Santistevan et al., “Epigenetic regulation of miR-184 by MBD1 governs neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 433–444, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. C. Zhao, G. Sun, S. Li, and Y. Shi, “A feedback regulatory loop involving microRNA-9 and nuclear receptor TLX in neural stem cell fate determination,” Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 365–371, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. Y. Cui, Z. Xiao, T. Chen et al., “The miR-7 identified from collagen biomaterial-based three-dimensional cultured cells regulates neural stem cell differentiation,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 393–405, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. D. Jiang, J. Du, X. Zhang et al., “miR-124 promotes the neuronal differentiation of mouse inner ear neural stem cells,” International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 1367–1376, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. W. Xu, P. Li, K. Qin, X. Wang, and X. Jiang, “miR-124 regulates neural stem cells in the treatment of spinal cord injury,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 529, no. 1, pp. 12–17, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. D. P. Bartel, “MicroRNAs: genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function,” Cell, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 281–297, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. G. Wang, Q. Ao, K. Gong et al., “The effect of topology of chitosan biomaterials on the differentiation and proliferation of neural stem cells,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 3630–3639, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. Y. C. Chen, D. C. Lee, C. Y. Hsiao et al., “The effect of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells,” Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 20, pp. 3428–3435, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. H. Xie, J. Li, L. Li, Y. Dong, G. Q. Chen, and K. C. Chen, “Enhanced proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells grown on PHA films coated with recombinant fusion proteins,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 7845–7854, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. T. C. Lim, W. S. Toh, L. S. Wang, M. Kurisawa, and M. Spector, “The effect of injectable gelatin-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid hydrogel matrices on the proliferation, migration, differentiation and oxidative stress resistance of adult neural stem cells,” Biomaterials, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 3446–3455, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. P. Moshayedi, L. R. Nih, I. L. Llorente et al., “Systematic optimization of an engineered hydrogel allows for selective control of human neural stem cell survival and differentiation after transplantation in the stroke brain,” Biomaterials, vol. 105, pp. 145–155, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. H. Chen, E. Quick, G. Leung et al., “Polyethylene glycol protects injured neuronal mitochondria,” Pathobiology, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 117–128, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. J. Luo and R. Shi, “Polyethylene glycol inhibits apoptotic cell death following traumatic spinal cord injury,” Brain Research, vol. 1155, pp. 10–16, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. A. O. Koob, J. M. Colby, and R. B. Borgens, “Behavioral recovery from traumatic brain injury after membrane reconstruction using polyethylene glycol,” Journal of Biological Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. C. B. Hutson, J. W. Nichol, H. Aubin et al., “Synthesis and characterization of tunable poly(ethylene glycol): gelatin methacrylate composite hydrogels,” Tissue Engineering Part A, vol. 17, no. 13-14, pp. 1713–1723, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. P. Naghdi, T. Tiraihi, F. Ganji, S. Darabi, T. Taheri, and H. Kazemi, “Survival, proliferation and differentiation enhancement of neural stem cells cultured in three-dimensional polyethylene glycol–RGD hydrogel with tenascin,” Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 199–208, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. G. T. Christopherson, H. Song, and H. Q. Mao, “The influence of fiber diameter of electrospun substrates on neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation,” Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 556–564, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. X. Y. Xu, X. T. Li, S. W. Peng et al., “The behaviour of neural stem cells on polyhydroxyalkanoate nanofiber scaffolds,” Biomaterials, vol. 31, no. 14, pp. 3967–3975, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. M. K. Horne, D. R. Nisbet, J. S. Forsythe, and C. L. Parish, “Three-dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds incorporating immobilized BDNF promote proliferation and differentiation of cortical neural stem cells,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 843–852, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. J. K. Van Camp, S. Beckers, D. Zegers, and W. Van Hul, “Wnt signaling and the control of human stem cell fate,” Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 207–229, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. Q. Qu, G. Sun, K. Murai et al., “Wnt7a regulates multiple steps of neurogenesis,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 33, no. 13, pp. 2551–2559, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. Y. Hirabayashi, Y. Itoh, H. Tabata et al., “The Wnt/β-catenin pathway directs neuronal differentiation of cortical neural precursor cells,” Development, vol. 131, pp. 2791–2801, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. K. C. Davidson, P. Jamshidi, R. Daly, M. T. Hearn, M. F. Pera, and M. Dottori, “Wnt3a regulates survival, expansion, and maintenance of neural progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells,” Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 408–415, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. X. T. Yang, Y. Y. Bi, E. T. Chen, and D. F. Feng, “Overexpression of Wnt3a facilitates the proliferation and neural differentiation of neural stem cells in vitro and after transplantation into an injured rat retina,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 148–161, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. Y. Luo, G. Shan, W. Guo et al., “Fragile x mental retardation protein regulates proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem/progenitor cells,” PLoS Genetics, vol. 6, no. 4, article e1000898, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. Q. Ma, C. Kintner, and D. J. Anderson, “Identification of neurogenin, a vertebrate neuronal determination gene,” Cell, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 43–52, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. Y. Sun, M. Nadal-Vicens, S. Misono et al., “Neurogenin promotes neurogenesis and inhibits glial differentiation by independent mechanisms,” Cell, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 365–376, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. A. Martinez Arias, V. Zecchini, and K. Brennan, “CSL-independent Notch signalling: a checkpoint in cell fate decisions during development?” Current Opinion in Genetics & Development, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 524–533, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. J. Chen, A. Zacharek, A. Li et al., “Atorvastatin promotes presenilin-1 expression and Notch1 activity and increases neural progenitor cell proliferation after stroke,” Stroke, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 220–226, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. M. H. Farah, J. M. Olson, H. B. Sucic, R. I. Hume, S. J. Tapscott, and D. L. Turner, “Generation of neurons by transient expression of neural bHLH proteins in mammalian cells,” Development, vol. 124, no. 7, pp. 693–702, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  114. Z. Zhang, R. Yan, Q. Zhang et al., “Hes1, a Notch signaling downstream target, regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis following traumatic brain injury,” Brain Research, vol. 1583, no. 1, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. Q. Z. Zhou, G. Zhang, H. B. Long et al., “Effect of spinal cord extracts after spinal cord injury on proliferation of rat embryonic neural stem cells and Notch signal pathway in vitro,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 562–567, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. M. Carolin, H. Rayk, M. Trilck, A. Rolfs, and M. J. Frech, “HES5 is a key mediator of Wnt-3a-induced neuronal differentiation,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1328–1339, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. H. Shimojo, T. Ohtsuka, and R. Kageyama, “Oscillations in notch signaling regulate maintenance of neural progenitors,” Neuron, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 52–64, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. H. Shimojo, T. Ohtsuka, and R. Kageyama, “Dynamic expression of notch signaling genes in neural stem/progenitor cells,” Frontiers in Neuroscience, vol. 5, p. 78, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus