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Stem Cells International
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 4835491, 18 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4835491
Review Article

Adult Neural Stem Cells: Basic Research and Production Strategies for Neurorestorative Therapy

1Federal Research Clinical Center of the Federal Biomedical Agency of Russian Federation, 28 Orekhovy Blvd, Moscow 115682, Russia
2Department of Basic and Applied Neurobiology, V.P. Serbsky Federal Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Narcology, Moscow, Russia
3Institute for Advanced Studies, Federal Biomedical Agency of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed to V. P. Baklaushev; moc.liamg@ffopres

Received 13 November 2017; Accepted 1 February 2018; Published 1 April 2018

Academic Editor: Hee-Woo Lee

Copyright © 2018 E. M. Samoilova et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Over many decades, constructing genetically and phenotypically stable lines of neural stem cells (NSC) for clinical purposes with the aim of restoring irreversibly lost functions of nervous tissue has been one of the major goals for multiple research groups. The unique ability of stem cells to maintain their own pluripotent state even in the adult body has made them into the choice object of study. With the development of the technology for induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and direct transdifferentiation of somatic cells into the desired cell type, the initial research approaches based on the use of allogeneic NSCs from embryonic or fetal nervous tissue are gradually becoming a thing of the past. This review deals with basic molecular mechanisms for maintaining the pluripotent state of embryonic/induced stem and reprogrammed somatic cells, as well as with currently existing reprogramming strategies. The focus is on performing direct reprogramming while bypassing the stage of iPSCs which is known for genetic instability and an increased risk of tumorigenesis. A detailed description of various protocols for obtaining reprogrammed neural cells used in the therapy of the nervous system pathology is also provided.