Stem Cells International / 2018 / Article / Fig 1

Research Article

TGFβ1-Induced Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived MSCs Is Mediated by Changes to the Actin Cytoskeleton

Figure 1

TGFβ1 induces osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. MSCs underwent osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation by culturing cells in the appropriate medium for 7 days. (a) Micrographs showing the degree of mineralized calcium deposition in noninduced cells (NI), osteoinduced cells (OS), osteoinduced cells + SB-431542 (OS + SB), and osteoinduced cells + TGFβ1 (OS + TGFB), as assessed by alizarin red S staining (20x magnification). (b) Quantification of mineralization in the alizarin red S stained groups shown in (a). Data are shown as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments (). (c) mRNA expression of the osteogenic markers ALPL, RUNX2, and OCN, normalized to GAPDH, as determined by RT-PCR. Data are shown as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments (; ). (d) Micrographs showing the accumulation of lipid droplets in noninduced cells (NI), adipoinduced cells (AD), adipoinduced cells + SB-431542 (AD + SB), and adipoinduced cells + TGFβ1 (AD + TGFB), as determined by Oil red O staining (20x magnification). (e) Quantification of mature adipocytes in the NI, AD, AD + SB, and AD + TGFB groups, as determined by Nile red fluorescence intensity. Data are shown as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments (). (f) mRNA expression of the adipogenic markers LPL, aP2, PPARG-2, and ADIPOQ, normalized to GAPDH, as determined by RT-PCR. Data are shown as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments (; ).
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