Table 6: Preclinical studies with MSCs.

Cell sourceCell typePathologyOutcomeReference

RatHuman AD-MSCPeripheral nerve injuryRepair of nerve[119]
RatHuman AD-MSCCerebral ischemiaRepair of nerve[120]
MouseHuman UCB-MSCHind limb ischemiaRepair of artery[121]
RatHuman UCB-MSCCavernosal nerve injuryImproved function[122]
RatAllogenic AD-MSCPeripheral nerve injuryRepair of nerve[123]
RatAllogenic BM-MSCSkin woundRepair of skin[124]
RatAutologous BM-MSCSpinal cord injuryRepair of nerve[125]
RatAutologous AD-MSCSpinal cord injuryRepair of nerve[126]
RatMouse SC-MSCErectile dysfunctionImproved function[127]
RabbitHuman AD-MSCSpinal cord injuryRepair of nerve[128]
RabbitHuman UCWJ-MSCNormalNo immune rejection[129]
RabbitPorcine S-MSCOsteochondral defectImmune rejection[130]
RabbitAllogenic S-MSCArticular cartilage defectRepair of defect[131]
RabbitAllogenic BM-MSCArticular cartilage defectRepair of defect[132]
RabbitAllogenic/autologous BM-MSCBone defectRepair of defect[133]
PorcineAutologous BM-MSCArticular cartilage defectRepair of defect[134]
PorcineMouse BM-CMSCVocal fold woundRepair of vocal fold[135]
PorcineAllogenic S-MSCArticular cartilage defectRepair of defect[136]
CanineAllogenic BM-MSCBone defectRepair of defect[137]
CanineAllogenic BM-MSCCardiac ischemiaImproved function[138]
CanineAllogenic BM-MSCMyocardial infarctionImproved function[139]
CanineAllogenic BM-MSCSkin woundRepair of skin[140]
CanineAllogenic BM-MSCNormalInflammation, tubular necrosis, mineralization, and fibrosis of kidney[141]
CanineAllogenic AD-MSCSpinal cord injuryRepair of nerve[80]
CanineAllogenic UCB-MSCSpinal cord injuryRepair of nerve[84]
CanineAutologous BM-MSCDisc degenerationRepair of nerve[142, 143]
CanineAutologous BM-MSCBone defectRepair of defect[144]
CanineAutologous BM-MSCStatic nerve injuryRepair of nerve[145]
CanineAutologous BM-MSCOsteochondral defectRepair of defect[146]
CanineAutologous BM-MSCMyocardial infarctionImproved function[147]
CanineAutologous BM-MSCOsteonecrosis of the femoral headRepair of blood vessel[148]
CanineAutologous BM-MSCOral ulcerRepair of ulcer[149]
CanineAutologous BM-MSCDiabetesImproved function[150]
CanineAutologous BM-MSCVocal fold woundRepair of vocal fold[151, 152]
CanineAutologous BM-MSCPeriodontal defectRepair of defect[153]
CanineAutologous BM-MSCPeriodontal class II furcation defectRepair of defect[154]
CanineAllogenic/autologous BM-MSCSpinal cord injuryRepair of nerve[155]
CanineAutologous AD-MSCSpinal cord injuryRepair of nerve[156]
CanineAutologous MSCChondral defectRepair of defect[157]
CanineAllogenic AD-MSCThoracolumbar intervertebral disc diseaseImproved clinical sign[158]
EquineAllogenic AD-MSCSuperficial digital flexor tendonitisRepair of tendonitis[159]
EquineAutologous BM-MSCSuperficial digital flexor tendonitisRepair of tendonitis[160]
EquineAutologous BM-MSCOsteoarthritisRepair of osteoarthritis[161]
EquineAllogenic/autologous BM-MSCNormalEnhancement of MSC[162]
DolphinAutologous AD-MSCNormalCell collection success[163]
CaprineAutologous BM-MSCOsteoarthritisRepair of osteoarthritis[164]

AT-MSC: adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells; UCB-MSC: umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells; BM-MSC: bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells; SC-MSC: skeletal muscle-derived mesenchymal stem cells; S-MSC: synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells; UCWJ-MSC: umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells.