Commitment of human MGC-derived iPSCs into retinal lineage. (a) Examples of self-forming neuroepithelial-like structures derived from iPSC-5f at D28 and involvement of IGF-1/insulin signaling in neuroepithelium formation during iPSC differentiation. (b) qRT-PCR analysis of eye-field transcription factors (EFTF), photoreceptor-restricted lineage markers, and nonretinal markers in neuroepithelial-like structures at D28. Data are normalized to iPSC-5f at D0. (c) qRT-PCR analysis of NOGGIN and DKK1 in differentiating iPSC-5f at D14 and D28. Data are normalized to iPSC-5f at D0. (e-g) Immunofluorescence costaining of cryosections from neuroepithelial-like structures at D35 for RAX and PAX6 (e), PAX6 and VSX2 (f), or VSX2 and Ki67 (g). Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (gray) (scale bars: a and d, 200 μm; e, f, g, 100 μm).