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Stem Cells International
Volume 2019, Article ID 8262849, 15 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8262849
Research Article

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Are More Effective Than Their Extracellular Vesicles at Reducing Lung Injury Regardless of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Etiology

1Laboratory of Pulmonary Investigation, Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
2National Institute of Science and Technology for Regenerative Medicine, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
3Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
4Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care, Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science and Institute of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
5Division of Pulmonary Disease and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Patricia R. M. Rocco; moc.liamg@occormrp

Received 4 March 2019; Revised 1 July 2019; Accepted 21 July 2019; Published 21 August 2019

Academic Editor: Stan Gronthos

Copyright © 2019 Johnatas D. Silva et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Although mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have demonstrated beneficial effects on experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), preconditioning may be required to potentiate their therapeutic effects. Additionally, administration of cell-free products, such as extracellular vesicles (EVs) obtained from MSC-conditioned media, might be as effective as MSCs. In this study, we comparatively evaluated the effects of MSCs, preconditioned or not with serum collected from mice with pulmonary or extrapulmonary ARDS (ARDSp and ARDSexp, respectively), and the EVs derived from these cells on lung inflammation and remodeling in ARDSp and ARDSexp mice. Administration of MSCs (preconditioned or not), but not their EVs, reduced static lung elastance, interstitial edema, and collagen fiber content in both ARDSp and ARDSexp. Although MSCs and EVs reduced alveolar collapse and neutrophil cell counts in lung tissue, therapeutic responses were superior in mice receiving MSCs, regardless of preconditioning. Despite higher total cell, macrophage, and neutrophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in ARDSp than ARDSexp, MSCs and EVs (preconditioned or not) led to a similar decrease. In ARDSp, both MSCs and EVs, regardless of preconditioning, reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, interleukin-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β in lung homogenates. In ARDSexp, TNF-α, interleukin-6, and KC levels were reduced by MSCs and EVs, preconditioned or not; only MSCs reduced VEGF levels, while TGF-β levels were similarly increased in ARDSexp treated either with saline, MSCs, or EVs, regardless of preconditioning. In conclusion, MSCs yielded greater overall improvement in ARDS in comparison to EVs derived from the same number of cells and regardless of the preconditioning status. However, the effects of MSCs and EVs differed according to ARDS etiology.