The Exposure to Osteoarthritic Synovial Fluid Enhances the Immunomodulatory Profile of Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cell Secretome
Exposure to osteoarthritic synovial fluid increases cell proliferation and promotes the release of cytokines and chemokines by AMSCs. (a) Representative phase contrast images (10x and 20x magnification) of AMSCs incubated without (CTRL) or with osteoarthritic synovial fluid (SF) for 48 hours. (b and c) Number of viable cells and viability were determined by the trypan blue exclusion assay. (d) The release of cytokines and chemokines of AMSCs after incubation with SF was measured in cell supernatants by a magnetic bead-based 40-plex assay. (e) IDO expression was determined by flow cytometry and reported as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI); histogram overlay shows isotype control staining (grey) versus specific antibody staining profile (green for control and red for AMSCs exposed to SF). Data are shown as Difference with untreated cells (). Difference with untreated cells (). Difference with untreated cells ().
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