Amygdalin Promotes Fracture Healing through TGF-β/Smad Signaling in Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Amygdalin accelerated formation of woven bone. (a) Histological sections of the bone fracture with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) as well as Alcian blue staining. Black arrows represent the cartilage area; yellow arrows highlight the woven bone area. . (b) The cartilage area (blue) of callus tissues (%, Cg.Ar/http://Ps.Cl.Ar) was quantified at days 7, 10, 14, and 21 postfracture in the control and amygdalin-treated groups. (c) Newly formed woven bone in callus tissues (%, Md.Ar/http://Ps.Cl.Ar) was quantified at days 7, 10, 14, and 21 postfracture in the control and amygdalin-treated groups. (d) Phospho-Smad2 and phospho-Smad1/5/8 protein expressions were assessed by immunohistochemistry in control and amygdalin-treated groups at days 7 and 10, separately. Blue arrows: p-Smad2 positive cells. . Data are presented as (SD). (e) Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and quantification of osteoclast surface per bone surface (Oc. S./BS) of sections from control and amygdalin-treated groups at day 14 after surgery. .,.
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