Research Article

Asymptomatic Hyperuricemia Is Associated with Achilles Tendon Rupture through Disrupting the Normal Functions of Tendon Stem/Progenitor Cells

Figure 2

Effects of UA treatment on TSPC viability and survival. Characteristics of primary cells extracted from SD rat tendon were determined in (a)–(c). (a) Primary cell colonies stained with crystal violet at 12 days. (b) Primary cells cultured under differentiation conditions for 21 days, followed by safranin O, oil red O, and alizarin red S staining to detect chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic differentiation, respectively. (c) Flow cytometry analysis of the expression of cell surface markers related to stem cells (CD44 and CD90.1), leukocyte (CD45), and endothelial cell (CD106). (d) CCK8 assays were used to assess TSPC proliferation over a course of 72 h, with the addition of PBS or UA (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mM). (e) Representative images show cell cycle distribution with flow cytometric analysis with UA treatment after 48 h. Changes in the percentile (f) and numbers (g) of live, apoptotic and dead TSPCs were assessed over 48 h with UA treatment. A control treated with PBS was included in all experiments. Results are presented as the from three independent experiments, using TSPC isolates from 3 individual rats. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. ; versus PBS-treated control at the relevant time point.