Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Scientifica
Volume 2012, Article ID 768731, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.6064/2012/768731
Review Article

The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System and Nutritional Assessment

1Peptide Hormones Supraregional Assay Service (SAS), Clinical Biochemistry Department, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XX, UK
2Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 5XH, UK

Received 28 May 2012; Accepted 5 July 2012

Academic Editors: W. L. Dees, G. Garibotto, E. Hajduch, S. M. Hileman, and R. Laybutt

Copyright © 2012 Callum Livingstone. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Noël, D. Chevenne, and D. Porquet, “Utility of insulin-like growth factor-I and its binding protein assays,” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 399–405, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. Juul, “Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I and its binding proteins in health and disease,” Growth Hormone and IGF Research, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 113–170, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Denley, L. J. Cosgrove, G. W. Booker, J. C. Wallace, and B. E. Forbes, “Molecular interactions of the IGF system,” Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 16, no. 4-5, pp. 421–439, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. I. Jones and D. R. Clemmons, “Insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins: biological actions,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 3–34, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. H. Yu and T. Rohan, “Role of the insulin-like growth factor family in cancer development and progression,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 92, no. 18, pp. 1472–1489, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. Yu, J. Mistry, M. J. Nicar et al., “Insulin-like growth Factors (IGF-I, free IGF-I, and IGF-II) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-6, and ALS) in blood circulation,” Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, vol. 13, pp. 166–172, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  7. D. R. Clemmons, “Role of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in controlling IGF actions,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 140, no. 1-2, pp. 19–24, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Perrini, L. Laviola, M. C. Carreira, A. Cignarelli, A. Natalicchio, and F. Giorgino, “The GH/IGF1 axis and signaling pathways in the muscle and bone: mechanisms underlying age-related skeletal muscle wasting and osteoporosis,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 205, no. 3, pp. 201–210, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Bouillon, “Growth hormone and bone,” Hormone Research, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 49–55, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. D. O'Dell and I. N. M. Day, “Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II),” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 767–771, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. C. Baxter, “Changes in the IGF-IGFBP axis in critical illness,” Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 421–434, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. E. Reeve, “Role of genetic imprinting in Wilm’s tumour and overgrowth disorders,” Medical and Pediatric Oncology, vol. 27, pp. 470–475, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  13. J. D. Teale and V. Marks, “Inappropriately elevated plasma insulin-like growth factor II in relation to suppressed insulin-like growth factor I in the diagnosis of non-islet cell tumour hypoglycaemia,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 87–98, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. W. B. De Groot, B. Rikhof, J. Van Doorn et al., “Non-islet cell tumour-induced hypoglycaemia: a review of the literature including two new cases,” Endocrine-Related Cancer, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 979–993, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Pavelic, T. Matijevic, and J. Knezevic, “Biological and physiological aspects of action of insulin-like growth factor peptide family,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 125, pp. 511–522, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  16. U. Espelund, J. M. Bruun, B. Richelsen, A. Flyvbjerg, and J. Frystyk, “Pro- and mature IGF-II during diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 153, no. 6, pp. 861–869, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. G. Renehan, A. A. Toogood, W. David Ryder et al., “Paradoxical elevations in serum IGF-II and IGF binding protein-2 in acromegaly: insights into the regulation of these peptides,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 469–475, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. M. Firth and R. C. Baxter, “Cellular actions of the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 824–854, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. Le Roith and A. A. Butler, “Insulin-like growth factors in pediatric health and disease,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 84, no. 12, pp. 4355–4361, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Delmi, C. H. Rapin, J. M. Bengoa, P. D. Delmas, H. Vasey, and J. P. Bonjour, “Dietary supplementation in elderly patients with fractured neck of the femur,” Lancet, vol. 335, no. 8696, pp. 1013–1016, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Elia, L. Zellipour, and R. J. Stratton, “To screen or not to screen for adult malnutrition?” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 867–884, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Elia, “Nutritional screening of adults: a multidisciplinary responsibility,” The ‘MUST’ Report, BAPEN, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  23. W. N. Schofield, “Predicting basal metabolic rate, new standards and review of previous work,” Human nutrition. Clinical nutrition, vol. 39, pp. 5–41, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. Tverskaya, R. Rising, D. Brown, and F. Lifshitz, “Comparison of several equations and derivation of a new equation for calculating basal metabolic rate in obese children,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 333–336, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. NICE, “Nutritional support in adults. Clinical Guideline 32,” London: NICE, 2006, http://www.nice.org.uk/.
  26. G. Devoto, F. Gallo, C. Marchello et al., “Prealbumin serum concentrations as a useful tool in the assessment of malnutrition in hospitalized patients,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 2281–2285, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. H. Ellegård and I. G. Bosaeus, “Biochemical indices to evaluate nutritional support for malignant disease,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 390, no. 1-2, pp. 23–27, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Fleck, “Clinical and nutritional aspects of changes in acute-phase proteins during inflammation,” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 347–354, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L. D. Plank, A. B. Connolly, and G. L. Hill, “Sequential changes in the metabolic response in severely septic patients during the first 23 days after the onset of peritonitis,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 228, no. 2, pp. 146–158, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. C. Heinrich, J. V. Castell, and T. Andus, “Interleukin-6 and the acute phase response,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 265, no. 3, pp. 621–636, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. C. Pinilla, P. Hayes, W. Laverty et al., “The C-reactive protein to prealbumin ratio correlates with the severity of multiple organ dysfunction,” Surgery, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 799–806, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. A. Myers, A. Fleck, and B. Sampson, “Early plasma protein and mineral changes after surgery: a two stage process,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 862–866, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. W. J. Smith, L. E. Underwood, and D. R. Clemmons, “Effects of caloric or protein restriction on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding proteins in children and adults,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 443–449, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. R. Counts, H. Gwirtsman, L. M. S. Carlsson, M. Lesem, and G. B. Cutler, “The effect of anorexia nervosa and refeeding on growth hormone-binding protein, the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and the IGF-binding proteins,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 762–767, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. B. Pucilowska, M. L. Davenport, I. Kabir et al., “The effect of dietary protein supplementation on insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF-binding proteins in children with shigellosis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 1516–1521, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. Caregaro, A. Favaro, P. Santonastaso et al., “Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), a nutritional marker in patients with eating disorders,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 251–257, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. I. Swenne, M. Stridsberg, B. Thurfjell, and A. Rosling, “Insulin-like growth factor-1 as an indicator of nutrition during treatment of adolescent girls with eating disorders,” Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics, vol. 96, no. 8, pp. 1203–1208, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Lukanova, E. Lundin, A. Zeleniuch-Jacquotte et al., “Body mass index, circulating levels of sex-steroid hormones, IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3: a cross-sectional study in healthy women,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 150, no. 2, pp. 161–171, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. E. S. Kim, J. H. Park, M. K. Lee et al., “Associations between fatness, IGF and IMT among obese Korean male adolescents,” Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism, vol. 35, pp. 610–618, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  40. S. L. Doyle, C. L. Donohue, S. P. Finn et al., “IGF-I and its receptor in esophageal cancer: association with adenocarcinoma and visceral adiposity,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 107, pp. 196–204, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  41. M. H. Rasmussen, “Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 316, no. 2, pp. 147–153, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. F. Lanfranco, G. Motta, M. A. Minetto, E. Ghigo, and M. Maccario, “Growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: an update,” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 192–196, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. Onder, R. Liperoti, A. Russo et al., “Body mass index, free insulin-like growth factor I, and physical function among older adults: results from the ilSIRENTE study,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 291, no. 4, pp. E829–E834, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. Frystyk, C. Skjaerbaek, E. Vestbo, S. Fisker, and H. Orskov, “Circulating levels of free insulin-like growth factors in obese subjects: the impact of type-2 diabetes,” Diabetes Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 15, pp. 314–322, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  45. M. H. Rasmussen, A. Juul, L. L. Kjems, and J. Hilsted, “Effects of short-term caloric restriction on circulating free IGF-I, acid-labile subunit, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in obese subjects,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 155, no. 4, pp. 575–581, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. L. Hintz, R. Suskind, and K. Amatayakul, “Plasma somatomedin and growth hormone values in children with protein-calorie malnutrition,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 153–156, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. L. Davenport, M. E. Svoboda, K. L. Koerber, J. J. Van Wyk, D. R. Clemmons, and L. E. Underwood, “Serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor II are not changed by short term fasting and refeeding,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1231–1236, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. H. Fowke, C. E. Matthews, H. Yu et al., “Racial differences in the association between body mass index and serum IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP3,” Endocrine-Related Cancer, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 51–60, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. U. Espelund, J. M. Bruun, B. Richelsen, A. Flyvbjerg, and J. Frystyk, “Pro- and mature IGF-II during diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 153, no. 6, pp. 861–869, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. K. Støving, J. W. Chen, D. Glintborg et al., “Bioactive Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) I and IGF-binding protein-1 in anorexia nervosa,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 2323–2329, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. K. Støving, A. Flyvbjerg, J. Frystyk et al., “Low serum levels of free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in patients with anorexia nervosa are not associated with increased IGF-binding protein-3 proteolysis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 1346–1350, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. M. Gómez, F. J. Maravall, N. Gómez, M. Á. Navarro, R. Casamitjana, and J. Soler, “The IGF-I system component concentrations that decrease with ageing are lower in obesity in relationship to body mass index and body fat,” Growth Hormone and IGF Research, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 91–96, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. C. Lemne and K. Brismar, “Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 as a marker of the metabolic syndrome—a study in borderline hypertension,” Blood Pressure, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 89–95, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. H. Saitoh, T. Kamoda, S. Nakahara, T. Hirano, and A. Matsui, “Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 as a predictor of glucose- stimulated hyperinsulinemia in prepubertal obese children,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 140, no. 3, pp. 231–234, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. H. Heald, K. Kaushal, K. W. Siddals, A. S. Rudenski, S. G. Anderson, and J. M. Gibson, “Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) is a marker for the metabolic syndrome,” Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes, vol. 114, no. 7, pp. 371–376, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. A. Arafat, M. O. Weickert, J. Frystyk et al., “The role of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-2 in the insulin-mediated decrease in IGF-I bioactivity,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 94, no. 12, pp. 5093–5101, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. W. M. Wan Nazaimoon, A. Osman, L. L. Wu, and B. A. K. Khalid, “Effects of iodine deficiency on insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 levels and height attainment in malnourished children,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 79–83, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. Ozen, H. Cokugras, N. Ozen, Y. Camcioglu, and N. Akcakaya, “Relation between serum insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 levels, clinical status and growth parameters in prepubertal cystic fibrosis patients,” Pediatrics International, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 429–435, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. B. Pucilowska, M. L. Davenport, I. Kabir et al., “The effect of dietary protein supplementation on insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF-binding proteins in children with shigellosis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 1516–1521, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. I. T. Gram, T. Norat, S. Rinaldi et al., “Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio and serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in European women,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 1623–1631, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. D. B. Grant, J. Hambley, D. Becker, and B. L. Pimstone, “Reduced sulphation factor in undernourished children,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 596–600, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. B. Campillo, E. Paillaud, P. N. Bories, M. Noel, D. Porquet, and J. C. Le Parco, “Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 in the three months following surgery for a hip fracture in elderly: relationship with nutritional status and inflammatory reaction,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 349–354, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. P. Donahue and L. S. Phillips, “Response of IGF-I to nutritional support in malnourished hospital patients: a possible indicator of short-term changes in nutritional status,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 962–969, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. D. R. Clemmons, A. Klibanski, and L. E. Underwood, “Reduction of plasma immunoreactive somatomedin C during fasting in humans,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 1247–1250, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. K. K. Hill, D. B. Hill, M. P. McClain, L. L. Humphries, and C. J. McClain, “Serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations in the recovery of patients with anorexia nervosa,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 475–478, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. T. G. Unterman, R. M. Vazquez, and A. J. Slas, “Nutrition and somatomedin. XIII. Usefulness of somatomedin-C nutritional assessment,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 228–234, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. D. R. Garrel, B. Nedelec, N. Jobin, and T. Abribat, “Decreased serum insulin-like growth factor-I in burn patients: relationship with serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 proteolysis and the influence of lipid composition in nutritional support,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 2366–2372, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. E. A. Lawson and A. Klibanski, “Endocrine abnormalities in anorexia nervosa,” Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 407–414, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. Frystyk, “Free insulin-like growth factors—measurements and relationships to growth hormone secretion and glucose homeostasis,” Growth Hormone and IGF Research, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 337–375, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. S. Turan, A. Bereket, A. Furman et al., “The effect of economic status on height, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding protein-3 concentrations in healthy Turkish children,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 752–758, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. I. Sermet-Gaudelus, J. C. Souberbielle, I. Azhar et al., “Insulin-like growth factor I correlates with lean body mass in cystic fibrosis patients,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 956–961, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. C. J. Chantry, M. D. Hughes, C. Alvero et al., “Insulin-like growth factor-1 and lean body mass in HIV-infected children,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 437–443, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. E. C. Dinleyici, Z. Kilic, B. Buyukkaragoz et al., “Serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and growth hormone levels in children with congenital heart disease: relationship with nutritional status, cyanosis and left ventricular functions,” Neuroendocrinology Letters, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 279–283, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. V. B. Marín, M. G. Jesús Rebollo, C. D. Castillo-Duran et al., “Controlled study of early postoperative parenteral nutrition in children,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1330–1335, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. E. M. Barksdale, A. N. Koehler, J. A. Yaworski, M. Gardner, and J. Reyes, “Insulinlike growth factor 1 and insulinlike growth factor 3: indices of intestinal failure in children,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 655–662, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. A. M. Nucci, J. Reyes, J. A. Yaworski, G. Mazariegos, N. Beserock, and E. M. Barksdale, “Serum growth factors and growth indices pre- and post-pediatric intestinal transplantation,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1043–1047, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. O. Goulet, M. Dabbas-Tyan, C. Talbotec et al., “Effect of recombinant human growth hormone on intestinal absorption and body composition in children with short bowel syndrome,” Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 513–520, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. A. Raynaud-Simon, L. Perin, S. Meaume et al., “IGF-I, IGF-I-binding proteins and GH-binding protein in malnurished elderly patients with inflammation receiving refeeding therapy,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 146, no. 5, pp. 657–665, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. Spies, S. E. Wolf, R. E. Barrow, M. G. Jeschke, and D. N. Herndon, “Modulation of types I and II acute phase reactants with insulin-like growth factor-1/binding protein-3 complex in severely burned children,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 83–88, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. B. Nedelec, A. De Oliveira, and D. R. Garrel, “Acute phase modulation of systemic insulin-like growth factor-1 and its binding proteins after major burn injuries,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1794–1801, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. A. García-de-Lorenzo, C. Ortiz-Leyba, M. Planas et al., “Parenteral administration of different amounts of branch-chain amino acids in septic patients: clinical and metabolic aspects,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 418–424, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J. Takala, E. Ruokonen, N. R. Webster et al., “Increased mortality associated with growth hormone treatment in critically ill adults,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 341, no. 11, pp. 785–792, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. F. Duška, M. Fric, J. Pažout, P. Waldauf, P. Tuma, and J. Pachl, “Frequent intravenous pulses of growth hormone together with alanylglutamine supplementation in prolonged critical illness after multiple trauma: effects on glucose control, plasma IGF-I and glutamine,” Growth Hormone and IGF Research, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 82–87, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. B. E. Taylor and T. G. Buchman, “Is there a role for growth hormone therapy in refractory critical illness?” Current Opinion in Critical Care, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 438–444, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. J. Frystyk, D. J. Brick, A. V. Gerweck, A. L. Utz, and K. K. Miller, “Bioactive insulin-like growth factor-I in obesity,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 94, no. 8, pp. 3093–3097, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. H. J. Schneider, B. Saller, J. Klotsche et al., “Opposite associations of age-dependent insulin-like growth factor-I standard deviation scores with nutritional state in normal weight and obese subjects,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 154, no. 5, pp. 699–706, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. C. Mitterberger, M. Mattesich, E. Klaver, H. Piza-Katzer, and W. Zwerschke, “Reduced insulin-like growth factor-I serum levels in formerly obese women subjected to laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding or diet-induced long term caloric restriction,” The Journals of Gerontology, vol. 66, pp. 1169–1177, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  88. A. Wieczorek-Baranowska, A. Nowak, E. Michelak et al., “Effect of aerobic exercise on insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in overweight and obese postmenopausal women,” The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, vol. 51, pp. 525–532, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  89. O. Ben Ounis, M. Elloumi, H. Zouhal et al., “Effect of individualized exercise training combined with diet restriction on inflammatory markers and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 in Obese children,” Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 260–266, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. S. Braun, K. Bitton-Worms, and D. LeRoith, “The link between the metabolic syndrome and cancer,” International Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 7, pp. 1003–1015, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  91. P. D. K. Lee, C. A. Conover, and D. R. Powell, “Regulation and function of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 204, no. 1, pp. 4–29, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. P. D. K. Lee, L. C. Giudice, C. A. Conover, and D. R. Powell, “Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1: recent findings and new directions,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 216, no. 3, pp. 319–357, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. B. A. Maddux, A. Chan, L. J. Mandarino, and I. D. Goldfine, “IGF-binding protein-1 levels are related to insulin-mediated glucose disposal and are a potential serum marker of insulin resistance,” Diabetes Care, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1535–1537, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. J. M. Gibson, M. Westwood, R. J. Young, and A. White, “Reduced insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) levels correlate with increased cardiovascular risk in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM),” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 860–863, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. M. L. B. Hellenius, K. E. Brismar, B. H. Berglund, and U. H. De Faire, “Effects on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, insulin-like growth factor 1 and its binding protein, IGFBP-1, in a randomized controlled diet and exercise study in healthy, middle-aged men,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 238, no. 2, pp. 121–130, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. A. Borai, C. Livingstone, H. Zarif, and G. Ferns, “Serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1: an improvement over other simple indices of insulin sensitivity in the assessment of subjects with normal glucose tolerance,” Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 109–113, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. D. R. Powell, F. Liu, B. K. Baker et al., “Modulation of growth factors by growth hormone in children with chronic renal failure,” Kidney International, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1970–1979, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. M. O. Elnenaei, J. Alaghband-Zadeh, R. Sherwood, M. A. Awara, C. Moniz, and C. W. le Roux, “Leptin and insulin-like growth factor-I: diagnostic markers of the refeeding syndrome and mortality,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 106, pp. 906–912, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  99. D. R. Clemmons, “Clinical utility of measurements of insulin-like growth factor-I.,” Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 2, pp. 436–446, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  100. W. F. Blum, N. Horn, J. Kratzsch et al., “Clinical studies of IGFBP-2 by radioimmunoassay,” Growth Regulation, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 100–104, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. I. Banerjee and P. E. Clayton, “Clinical utility of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 measurements in paediatric practice,” Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 393–402, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. I. Fukuda, M. Hotta, N. Hizuka et al., “Decreased serum levels of acid-labile subunit in patients with anorexia nervosa,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 2034–2036, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. F. L. Crowe, T. J. Key, N. E. Allen et al., “The association between diet and serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1333–1340, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. W. J. Smith, L. E. Underwood, and D. R. Clemmons, “Effects of caloric or protein restriction on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding proteins in children and adults,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 443–449, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. M. A. Crook, V. Hally, and J. V. Panteli, “The importance of the refeeding syndrome,” Nutrition, vol. 17, no. 7-8, pp. 632–637, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. N. Kagansky, S. Levy, N. Koren-Morag, D. Berger, and H. Knobler, “Hypophosphataemia in old patients is associated with the refeeding syndrome and reduced survival,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 257, no. 5, pp. 461–468, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. A. Caufriez, P. Reding, D. Urbain, J. Golstein, and G. Copinschi, “Insulin-like growth factor I: a good indicator of functional hepatocellular capacity in alcoholic liver cirrhosis,” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 317–321, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. A. Purandare, L. Co Ng, M. Godil, S. H. Ahnn, and T. A. Wilson, “Effect of hypothyroidism and its treatment on the IGF system in infants and children,” Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 35–42, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus