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Volume 2012, Article ID 871201, 4 pages
Research Article

Comparative Analysis of the Full-Length Genome Sequence of a Clinical Isolate of Human Parainfluenza Virus 4B

1Department of Environmental and Global Health, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100188, Gainesville, FL 32610-0188, USA
2Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
3GenSol Diagnostics, 4945 Apollo Avenue, St. Cloud, FL 34773, USA
4Medical Countermeasures Division, MRIGlobal, 425 Volker Boulevard, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA

Received 27 May 2012; Accepted 2 July 2012

Academic Editors: S. Bofill-Mas, M. Clementi, and R. Colina

Copyright © 2012 John A. Lednicky et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We are engaged in airborne transmission and epidemiology studies of respiratory pathogens, with particular interest in human parainfluenza virus type 4 (hPIV-4) and other lesser studied viruses. In this paper, hPIV-4 was detected in primary rhesus monkey kidney (PRMK) cells that had been inoculated with nasopharyngeal swab material obtained from a child with a mild upper respiratory tract illness. Attempts to isolate the virus in pure culture were hampered by the presence of a fast-growing simian spumavirus that was a contaminant of the PRMK cells. Total RNA was extracted from the PRMK cell culture, and PCR followed by sequencing of a subgenomic section of the fusion protein gene suggested the hPIV-4 was subtype 4B. At the time of this work, two complete but dissimilar hPIV-4B genomes had been deposited by others in GenBank. To gain better insights on hPIV-4B, and to test methods that we are developing for viral forensics, the entire genomic sequence of our virus was determined from archived RNA. The hPIV-4B genomic sequence that we determined conforms to the paramyxovirus “rule of six.” Here, we compare and contrast the genetic features of the three completely sequenced hPIV-4B genomes currently present in GenBank.