Scientifica / 2014 / Article / Fig 1

Research Article

Potential Association between Breakfast Skipping and Concomitant Late-Night-Dinner Eating with Metabolic Syndrome and Proteinuria in the Japanese Population

Figure 1

Proportions of subjects who skipped breakfast (SB) and with LNDE (a), and who skipped breakfast concomitant with LNDE (SB + LNDE), according to six body mass index (BMI) categories. The symbols in the middle of each bar represent the mean percentage of subjects with breakfast skipping, LNDE, or breakfast skipping concomitant with LNDE and was calculated as the number of subjects with these behaviors/number of subjects in each BMI group ×100, for each BMI category. The vertical bar represents the standard error (SEM) when skipping breakfast, LNDE, or skipping breakfast concomitant with LNDE was numbered as 1, and the absence of these behaviors as 0. Triangles (▲), circles (●), and diamonds (♦) represent overall breakfast skipping (SB), overall LNDE, and breakfast skipping concomitant with LNDE (SB + LNDE), respectively. The numbers of subjects in each of the six BMI categories from ≤18.9 to ≥27.0 kg/m2 were 5,522, 12,341, 15,708, 12,836, 7,484, and 6,909, respectively. The numbers of subjects in each category who skipped breakfast were 1,316 (9.4%), 2,765 (19.7%), 3,451 (24.5%), 2,862 (20.3%), 1,739 (12.4%), and 1,935 (13.8%); respectively, and the numbers of subjects with LNDE were 1,526 (8.3%), 3,426 (18.6%), 4,550 (24.7%), 3,925 (21.3%), 2,482 (13.5%), and 2,497 (13.6%), respectively. The numbers of subjects with SB + LNDE were 584 (8.8%), 1,256 (18.9%), 1,586 (23.9%), 1,354 (20.4%), 871 (13.1%), and 994 (15.0%), respectively (% of total SB + LNDE).

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