Scientifica / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Potential Association between Breakfast Skipping and Concomitant Late-Night-Dinner Eating with Metabolic Syndrome and Proteinuria in the Japanese Population

Table 1

Clinical characteristics of subjects according to four eating behavior groups.

Eating behavior groupsNormal eating behaviorLNDE aloneSkipping breakfast aloneSkipping breakfast concomitant with LNDE

(% of total)34,971 (57.5)11,761 (19.3)7,423 (12.2)6,645 (10.9)
Men, (%)20,010 (57.2)7,934 (67.5)5,174 (69.7)5,005 (75.3)
Age (years) 45.2 ± 12.942.9 ± 12.039.2 ± 12.038.5 ± 11.0a,b
BMI (kg/m2)22.8 ± 3.223.2 ± 3.423.0 ± 3.523.3 ± 3.7b
Waist circumference (cm)80.2 ± 9.081.3 ± 9.580.3 ± 9.681.4 ± 10.0b
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)121 ± 16.4122 ± 16.2121 ± 15.8122 ± 15.8
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)74 ± 1275 ± 1374 ± 1275 ± 13b
Aspartate aminotransferase (IU/L)22 (19–26)22 (19–27)21 (18–25)21 (18–26)a,b
Alanine aminotransferase (IU/L)18 (13–25)19 (14–28)18 (13–26)19 (14–28)b
γ-glutamyltransferase (IU/L)22 (16–36)25 (17–43)23 (17–37)25 (18–43)b
Triglycerides (mg/dL)90 (61–136)91 (61–141)90 (61–140)91 (60–142)
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)62.6 ± 15.362.3 ± 15.460.2 ± 15.160.7 ± 15.1a
HbA1c (%, NGSP)5.5 ± 0.65.5 ± 0.65.4 ± 0.65.4 ± 0.6a
Past history of CVD, (%)450 (1.3)159 (1.4)85 (1.1)67 (1.0)
Proteinuria, (%)2,009 (5.7)741 (6.3)623 (8.4)568 (8.5)
Daily alcohol consumption, (%)6,887 (19.7)3,761 (32.0)1,491 (20.0)1,999 (30.1)
Current smoker, (%)8,611 (24.6)3,776 (32.1)3,747 (50.5)3,574 (53.8)
Having regular exercise, (%)9,028 (25.8)2,741 (23.3)1,495 (20.1)1,316 (19.8)
MetSc, (%)4,595 (13.1)1,610 (13.7)900 (12.1)849 (12.8)

 *Bonferroni , (aLND alone versus skipping breakfast concomitant with LNDE; bskipping breakfast alone versus skipping breakfast concomitant with LNDE).
cMetS was determined according to the modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria because of the lack of fasting plasma glucose measurement.
Concentrations of hepatic enzymes and triglycerides are expressed as median (interquartile range). Linear trends in clinical parameters across the four eating habit groups were examined by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Hepatic enzymes and triglycerides were log transformed before analysis. All for trend values in continuous variables were <0.0001. Differences in categorical variables between the four dietary groups were examined by tests. All values were <0.0001, except for past history of CVD ( ) and MetS ( , Cramer value, 0.01).
BMI: body mass index; CVD: cardiovascular disease (including stroke); HDL: high-density lipoprotein; LNDE: late-night-dinner eating; MetS: metabolic syndrome; NGSP: National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program.

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