Scientifica / 2014 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Potential Association between Breakfast Skipping and Concomitant Late-Night-Dinner Eating with Metabolic Syndrome and Proteinuria in the Japanese Population

Table 2

Odds ratios and 95% CI of unhealthy eating behaviors for MetS, proteinuria, and obesity.

Normal eating
behavior
LNDE aloneSkipping breakfast
alone
Skipping breakfast concomitant with LNDE for trend

MetS
 Case 4,5951,610900849
 Model 11 (Ref)1.05 (0.99–1.11)0.91 (0.85–0.98)*0.97 (0.90–1.05)0.98 (0.96–1.01)
 Model 21 (Ref)1.14 (1.07–1.22)††1.17 (1.08–1.27)††1.28 (1.18–1.39)††1.09 (1.06–1.11)††
 Model 31 (Ref)1.17 (1.10–1.25)††1.08 (1.00–1.17)1.21 (1.11–1.32)††1.06 (1.04–1.09)††
 Model 3
  Men1 (Ref)1.20 (1.12–1.30)††1.08 (0.99–1.19)1.21 (1.10–1.32)††1.06 (1.03–1.09)††
  Women1 (Ref)1.09 (0.96–1.23)1.04 (0.88–1.23)1.10 (0.91–1.34)1.03 (0.98–1.09)
Proteinuria
 Case 2,009741623568
 Model 11 (Ref)1.10 (1.01–1.20)*1.50 (1.37–1.65)††1.53 (1.39–1.69)††1.17 (1.14–1.21)††
 Model 2 1 (Ref)1.08 (0.99–1.18)1.43 (1.30–1.57)††1.45 (1.31–1.60)††1.15 (1.11–1.18)††
 Model 3 1 (Ref)1.08 (0.99–1.15)1.37 (1.25–1.51)††1.40 (1.26–1.55)††1.13 (1.10–1.17)††
 Model 3
  Men1 (Ref)1.09 (0.98–1.22)1.40 (1.25–1.58)††1.43 (1.27–1.61)††1.14 (1.10–1.18)††
  Women1 (Ref)1.04 (0.90–1.22)1.38 (1.16–1.63)1.41 (1.16–1.71)1.13 (1.07–1.20)††
Obesity
 Case 1,038472333360
 Model 11 (Ref)1.37 (1.22–1.53)††1.54 (1.35–1.74)††1.87 (1.66–2.12)††1.23 (1.19–1.28)††
 Model 2 1 (Ref)1.27 (1.14–1.42)††1.31 (1.16–1.49)††1.57 (1.38–1.77)††1.16 (1.11–1.20)††
 Model 3 1 (Ref)1.36 (1.22–1.53)††1.28 (1.13–1.46)1.62 (1.42–1.84)††1.17 (1.12–1.21)††
 Model 3
  Men1 (Ref)1.30 (1.14–1.49)1.25 (1.08–1.46)1.53 (1.32–1.77)††1.14 (1.10–1.18)††
  Women1 (Ref)1.53 (1.25–1.88)††1.32 (1.01–1.71)*1.89 (1.45–2.46)††1.13 (1.07–1.20)††

 * , , †† .
Model 1: Unadjusted.
Model 2: Adjusted for age and sex.
Model 3: Adjusted for age, sex, current smoking (versus nonsmoking), daily alcohol consumption (versus infrequent/no alcohol consumption), having regular exercise, and past history of cardiovascular disease.
Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30.0 kg/m2.

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