Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Scientifica
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 581639, 29 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/581639
Review Article

Phage Therapy: Eco-Physiological Pharmacology

Department of Microbiology, The Ohio State University, Mansfield, OH 44906, USA

Received 18 November 2013; Accepted 10 February 2014; Published 20 May 2014

Academic Editors: J. R. Blazquez, M. A. Choudhry, and L. Zhang

Copyright © 2014 Stephen T. Abedon. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. R. Tracy and J. S. Turner, “What is physiological ecology?” Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, vol. 63, pp. 340–347, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  2. H. Brüssow and E. Kutter, “Phage ecology,” in Bacteriophages: Biology and Applications, E. Kutter and A. Sulakvelidze, Eds., pp. 129–164, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  3. C. I. Hunter, A. Mitchell, P. Jones et al., “Metagenomic analysis: the challenge of the data bonanza,” Briefings in Bioinformatics, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 743–746, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. H. C. Lee, K. Lai, M. T. Lorenc, M. Imelfort, C. Duran, and D. Edwards, “Bioinformatics tools and databases for analysis of next-generation sequence data,” Briefings in Functional Genomics, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 12–24, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. N. K. Priest, J. K. Rudkin, E. J. Feil et al., “From genotype to phenotype: can systems biology be used to predict Staphylococcus aureus virulence?” Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 791–797, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. J. Atallah and E. Larsen, “Genotype-phenotype mapping: developmental biology confronts the toolkit paradox,” International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 278, pp. 119–148, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Groth, U. Leser, and B. Weiss, “Phenotype mining for functional genomics and gene discovery,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 760, pp. 159–173, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. V. Gkoutos, P. N. Schofield, and R. Hoehndorf, “Computational tools for comparative phenomics: the role and promise of ontologies,” Mammalian Genome, vol. 23, no. 9-10, pp. 669–679, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. T. P. Dryja, “Gene-based approach to human gene-phenotype correlations,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 94, no. 22, pp. 12117–12121, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Erturk-Hasdemir and D. L. Kasper, “Resident commensals shaping immunity,” Current Opinion in Immunology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 450–455, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. E. Pennisi, “Mysteries of development. How do microbes shape animal development?” Science, vol. 340, no. 6137, pp. 1159–1160, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. V. O. Ezenwa, N. M. Gerardo, D. W. Inouye, M. Medina, and J. B. Xavier, “Microbiology. Animal behavior and the microbiome,” Science, vol. 338, no. 6104, pp. 198–199, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. P. J. Turnbaugh, R. E. Ley, M. Hamady, C. M. Fraser-Liggett, R. Knight, and J. I. Gordon, “The human microbiome project,” Nature, vol. 449, no. 7164, pp. 804–810, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. Biagi, M. Candela, S. Fairweather-Tait, C. Franceschi, and P. Brigidi, “Ageing of the human metaorganism: the microbial counterpart,” Age, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 247–267, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. F. Gale, “The nature of the selective toxicity of antibiotics,” British Medical Bulletin, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 11–15, 1960. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. D. Cotter, R. P. Ross, and C. Hill, “Bacteriocins—a viable alternative to antibiotics?” Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 95–105, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  17. P. Hyman and S. T. Abedon, “Bacteriophage host range and bacterial resistance,” Advances in Applied Microbiology, vol. 70, pp. 217–248, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. E. Hume, “Historic perspective: prebiotics, probiotics, and other alternatives to antibiotics,” Poultry Science, vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 2663–2669, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W. C. Summers, “History of phage research and phage therapy,” in Phages: Their Role in Bacterial Pathogenesis and Biotechnology, M. Waldor, D. Friedman, and S. Adhya, Eds., ASM Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  20. S. T. Abedon, S. J. Kuhl, B. G. Blasdel, and E. M. Kutter, “Phage treatment of human infections,” Bacteriophage, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 66–85, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. N. Chanishvili, “Phage therapy-history from Twort and d'Herelle through Soviet experience to current approaches,” Advances in Virus Research, vol. 83, pp. 3–40, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. D. R. Harper and S. Morales, “Bacteriophage therapy: practicability and clinical need meet in the multidrug-resistance era,” Future Microbiology, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 797–799, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. W. C. Summers, “The strange history of phage therapy,” Bacteriophage, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 130–133, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. S. T. Abedon, C. Thomas-Abedon, A. Thomas, and H. Mazure, “Bacteriophage prehistory: is or is not Hankin, 1896, a phage reference?” Bacteriophage, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 174–178, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. D. H. Duckworth, “Who discovered bacteriophage?” Bacteriological Reviews, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 793–802, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. F. W. Twort, “An investigation on the nature of ultra-microscopic viruses,” The Lancet, vol. 186, no. 4814, pp. 1241–1243, 1915. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. F. W. Twort, “An investigation on the nature of ultra-microscopic viruses,” Bacteriophage, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 127–129, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. F. d'Hérelle, “Sur un microbe invisible antagoniste des bacilles dysentériques,” Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de L'Académie des Sciences D: Sciences Naturelles, vol. 165, pp. 373–375, 1917. View at Google Scholar
  29. W. C. Summers, Felix d'Herelle and the Origins of Molecular Biology, Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn, USA, 1999.
  30. F. d'Hérelle, “On an invisible microbe antagonistic toward dysenteric bacilli,” Research in Microbiology, vol. 158, no. 7, pp. 553–554, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. F. d'Hérelle, “On an invisible microbe antagonistic to dysentery bacilli,” Bacteriophage, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 3–5, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. F. d'Hérelle, Le Bactériophage: Son Rôle dans l'Immunité, Masson et Cie, Paris, France, 1921.
  33. R. Bruynoghe and J. Maisin, “Essais de thérapeutique au moyen du bactériophage du Staphylocoque,” Comptes Rendus des Séances de la Société de biologie et de ses Filiales, vol. 85, pp. 1120–1121, 1921. View at Google Scholar
  34. F. d'Hérelle, The Bacteriophage: Its Role in Immunity, Waverly Press, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1922.
  35. W. C. Summers, “Bacteriophage therapy,” Annual Review of Microbiology, vol. 55, pp. 437–451, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. N. W. Larkum, “Bacteriophage treatment of Staphylococcus infections,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 34–41, 1929. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. M. D. Eaton and S. Bayne-Jones, “Bacteriophage therapy: review of the principles and results of the use of bacteriophage in the treatment of infections (I),” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 103, no. 23, pp. 1769–1776, 1934. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. M. D. Eaton and S. Bayne-Jones, “Bacteriophage therapy: review of the principles and results of the use of bacteriophage in the treatment of infections (II),” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 103, no. 24, pp. 1847–1853, 1934. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. M. D. Eaton and S. Bayne-Jones, “Bacteriophage therapy: review of the principles and results of the use of bacteriophage in the treatment of infections (III),” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 103, no. 25, pp. 1934–1939, 1934. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. H. W. Smith and M. B. Huggins, “Successful treatment of experimental Escherichia coli infections in mice using phage: its general superiority over antibiotics,” Journal of General Microbiology, vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 307–318, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. H. W. Smith and M. B. Huggins, “Effectiveness of phages in treating experimental Escherichia coli diarhoea in calves, piglets and lambs,” Journal of General Microbiology, vol. 129, no. 8, pp. 2659–2675, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. W. Smith, M. B. Huggins, and K. M. Shaw, “The control of experimental Escherichia coli diarrhoea in calves by means of bacteriophages,” Journal of General Microbiology, vol. 133, no. 5, pp. 1111–1126, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Slopek, B. Weber-Dabrowska, M. Dabrowski, and A. Kucharewicz-Krukowska, “Results of bacteriophage treatment of suppurative bacterial infections in the years 1981–1986,” Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 569–583, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. B. Balogh, J. B. Jones, F. B. Iriarte, and M. T. Momol, “Phage therapy for plant disease control,” Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 48–57, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Hagens and M. J. Loessner, “Bacteriophage for biocontrol of foodborne pathogens: calculations and considerations,” Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 58–68, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. E. Kutter, D. de Vos, G. Gvasalia et al., “Phage therapy in clinical practice: treatment of human infections,” Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 69–86, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. B. R. Levin and J. J. Bull, “Phage therapy revisited: the population biology of a bacterial infection and its treatment with bacteriophage and antibiotics,” American Naturalist, vol. 147, no. 6, pp. 881–898, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. J. Bull, B. R. Levin, T. deRouin, N. Walker, and C. A. Bloch, “Dynamics of success and failure in phage and antibiotic therapy in experimental infections,” BMC Microbiology, vol. 2, no. 1, article 35, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. R. Levin and J. J. Bull, “Population and evolutionary dynamics of phage therapy,” Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 166–173, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. J. H. Payne and V. A. A. Jansen, “Phage therapy: the peculiar kinetics of self-replicating pharmaceuticals,” Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 225–230, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. B. Shelton, D. R. Crosslin, J. L. Casey, S. Ng, L. M. Temple, and P. E. Orndorff, “Discovery, purification, and characterization of a temperate transducing bacteriophage for Bordetella avium,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 182, no. 21, pp. 6130–6136, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. R. J. H. Payne and V. A. A. Jansen, “Pharmacokinetic principles of bacteriophage therapy,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 315–325, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. J. Glinert and R. B. Luftig, “Bacteriophage T4D head morphogenesis—VIII. DNA protein associations in intermediate head structures that accumulate in gene 49—mutant infected cells,” Journal of Virology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 758–777, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. L. W. Black and G. Peng, “Mechanistic coupling of bacteriophage T4 DNA packaging to components of the replication-dependent late transcription machinery,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 281, no. 35, pp. 25635–25643, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. R. Calendar and R. Inman, “Phage biology,” in Phages: Their Role in Bacterial Pathogenesis and Biotechnology, M. K. Waldor, D. I. Friedman, and S. L. Adhya, Eds., pp. 18–36, ASM Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  56. B. Guttman, R. Raya, and E. Kutter, “Basic phage biology,” in Bacteriophages: Biology and Applications, E. Kutter and A. Sulakvelidze, Eds., pp. 29–66, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  57. R. Young, “Phage lysis,” in Phages: Their Role in Pathogenesis and Biotechnology, M. K. Waldor, D. I. Friedman, and S. L. Adhya, Eds., pp. 92–127, ASM Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  58. I. J. Molineux, “Fifty-three years since Hershey and Chase; much ado about pressure but which pressure is it?” Virology, vol. 344, no. 1, pp. 221–229, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. Sulakvelidze and E. Kutter, “Bacteriophage therapy in humans,” in Bacteriophages: Biology and Applications, E. Kutter and A. Sulakvelidze, Eds., pp. 381–436, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  60. E. Kutter, “Phage therapy: bacteriophages as naturally occurring antimicrobials,” in Practical Handbook of Microbiology, E. Goldman and L. H. Green, Eds., pp. 713–730, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  61. N. Chanishvili, I. Malkhazova, and N. Khurtsia, “Phage therapy against intestinal infections,” in A Literature Review of the Practical Application of Bacteriophage Research, N. Chanishvili and R. Sharp, Eds., pp. 33–58, Eliava Institute, Tbilisi, Ga, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  62. J. N. Housby and N. H. Mann, “Phage therapy,” Drug Discovery Today, vol. 14, no. 11-12, pp. 536–540, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. Letkiewicz, R. Miedzybrodzki, M. Kłak, E. Jończyk, B. Weber-Dabrowska, and A. Górski, “The perspectives of the application of phage therapy in chronic bacterial prostatitis,” FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 99–112, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. Miedzybrodzki, J. Borysowski, B. Weber-Dabrowska et al., “Clinical aspects of phage therapy,” Advances in Virus Research, vol. 83, pp. 73–121, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. Z. Drulis-Kawa, G. Majkowska-Skrobek, B. Maciejewska, A. S. Delattre, and R. Lavigne, “Learning from bacteriophages—advantages and limitations of phage and phage-encoded protein applications,” Current Protein and Peptide Science, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 699–722, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. A. J. Curtright and S. T. Abedon, “Phage therapy: emergent property pharmacology,” Journal of Bioanalysis and Biomedicine, vol. 6, article 002, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. R. W. Teichert and B. M. Olivera, “Natural products and ion channel pharmacology,” Future Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 731–744, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. R. Calendar and S. T. Abedon, The Bacteriophages, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2006.
  69. H. W. Ackermann and D. Prangishvili, “Prokaryote viruses studied by electron microscopy,” Archives of Virology, vol. 157, no. 10, pp. 1843–1849, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. P. Hyman and S. T. Abedon, “Smaller fleas: viruses of microorganisms,” Scientifica, vol. 2012, Article ID 734023, 23 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. E. S. Miller, E. Kutter, G. Mosig, F. Arisaka, T. Kunisawa, and W. Rüger, “Bacteriophage T4 genome,” Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 86–156, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. H. Hadas, M. Einav, I. Fishov, and A. Zaritsky, “Bacteriophage T4 development depends on the physiology of its host Escherichia coli,” Microbiology, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 179–185, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. B. K. Chan and S. T. Abedon, “Phage therapy pharmacology: phage cocktails,” Advances in Applied Microbiology, vol. 78, pp. 1–23, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. B. K. Chan, S. T. Abedon, and C. Loc-Carrillo, “Phage cocktails and the future of phage therapy,” Future Microbiology, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 769–783, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. D. R. Harper, J. Anderson, and M. Enright, “Phage therapy: delivering on the promise,” Therapeutic Delivery, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 935–947, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. D. R. Harper, “Biological control by microorganisms,” in The Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, pp. 1–10, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  77. A. Sulakvelidze and P. Barrow, “Phage therapy in animals and agribusiness,” in Bacteriophages: Biology and Applications, E. Kutter and A. Sulakvelidze, Eds., pp. 335–380, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  78. S. T. Abedon, “Kinetics of phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria,” Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 807–815, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. P. M. Sabour and M. W. Griffiths, Bacteriophages in the Control of Food-and Waterborne Pathogens, ASM Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2010.
  80. S. T. Abedon, “The “nuts and bolts” of phage therapy,” Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 1, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. P. Hyman and S. T. Abedon, Bacteriophages in Health and Disease, CABI Press, Wallingford, UK, 2012.
  82. J. Borysowski, R. Miedzybrodzki, and A. Górski, Phage Therapy: Current Research and Applications, Caister Academic Press, Norfolk, UK, 2014.
  83. A. Henien, “What are the limitations on the wider therapeutic use of phage?” Bacteriophage, vol. 3, no. 2, Article ID e24872, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  84. H. Brussow, “What is needed for phage therapy to become a reality in Western medicine?” Virology, vol. 434, no. 2, pp. 138–142, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. S. T. Abedon, Bacteriophages and Biofilms: Ecology, Phage Therapy, Plaques, Nova Science, Hauppauge, NY, USA, 2011.
  86. N. Sankaran, “The bacteriophage, its role in immunology: how Macfarlane Burnet's phage research shaped his scientific style,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 367–375, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. A. Górski and B. Weber-Dabrowska, “The potential role of endogenous bacteriophages in controlling invading pathogens,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 511–519, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. J. J. Barr, R. Auro, M. Furlan et al., “Bacteriophage adhering to mucus provide a non-host-derived immunity,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. T. I. Villalobos, B. Renfro, and M. H. Rathore, “Pharamacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibacterial agents in pediatrics: a practical approach,” Jacksonville Medicine, pp. 339–344, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  90. M. E. Levison and J. H. Levison, “Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibacterial agents,” Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 791–815, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. S. T. Abedon and C. Thomas-Abedon, “Phage therapy pharmacology,” Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 28–47, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. S. T. Abedon, “Phage therapy best practices,” in Bacteriophages in Health and Disease, P. Hyman and S. T. Abedon, Eds., pp. 256–272, CABI Press, Wallingford, UK, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  93. S. T. Abedon, “Bacteriophages as drugs: the pharmacology of phage therapy,” in Phage Therapy: Current Research and Applications, J. Borysowski, R. Miedzybrodzki, and A. Górski, Eds., Caister Academic Press, Norfolk, UK, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  94. E. M. Ryan, S. P. Gorman, R. F. Donnelly, and B. F. Gilmore, “Recent advances in bacteriophage therapy: how delivery routes, formulation, concentration and timing influence the success of phage therapy,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 1253–1264, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. H. M. Parracho, B. H. Burrowes, M. C. Enright, M. L. McConville, and D. R. Harper, “The role of regulated clinical trials in the development of bacteriophage therapeutics,” Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 279–286, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  96. S. T. Abedon, “Phage ecology,” in The Bacteriophages, R. Calendar and S. T. Abedon, Eds., pp. 37–46, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  97. S. T. Abedon, “Phages, ecology, evolution,” in Bacteriophage Ecology, S. T. Abedon, Ed., pp. 1–28, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  98. S. T. Abedon, “Ecology of viruses infecting bacteria,” in Encyclopedia of Virology, B. W. J. Mahy and M. H. V. van Regenmortel, Eds., pp. 71–77, Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 3rd edition, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  99. S. T. Abedon, S. Duffy, and P. E. Turner, “Bacteriophage ecology,” in Encyclopedia of Microbiology, M. Schaecter, Ed., pp. 42–57, Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  100. B. K. Chan and S. T. Abedon, “Bacteriophage adaptation, with particular attention to issues of phage host range,” in Bacteriophages in Dairy Processing, A. Quiberoni and J. Reinheimer, Eds., pp. 25–52, Nova Science, Hauppauge, NY, USA, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  101. M. G. Weinbauer, M. Agis, O. Bonilla-Findji, A. Malits, and C. Winter, “Bacteriophage in the environment,” in Bacteriophage: Genetics and Molecular Biology, S. McGrath and D. van Sinderen, Eds., pp. 61–92, Caister Academic Press, Norfolk, UK, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  102. S. Hagens and U. Bläsi, “Genetically modified filamentous phage as bactericidal agents: a pilot study,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 318–323, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. S. Hagens, A. Habel, U. von Ahsen, A. von Gabain, and U. Bläsi, “Therapy of experimental Pseudomonas infections with a nonreplicating genetically modified phage,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 3817–3822, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. T. Matsuda, T. A. Freeman, D. W. Hilbert et al., “Lysis-deficient bacteriophage therapy decreases endotoxin and inflammatory mediator release and improves survival in a murine peritonitis model,” Surgery, vol. 137, no. 6, pp. 639–646, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. S. A. David, “Antimicrobial peptides for Gram-negative sepsis: a case for the polymyxins,” Frontiers in Immunology, vol. 3, article 252, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  106. E. Jończyk, M. Kłak, R. Miedzybrodzki, and A. Górski, “The influence of external factors on bacteriophages-review,” Folia Microbiologica, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 191–200, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. A. V. Letarov, A. K. Golomidova, and K. K. Tarasyan, “Ecological basis of rational phage therapy,” Acta Naturae, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 60–71, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  108. S. T. Abedon, Bacteriophage Ecology: Population Growth, Evolution, and Impact of Bacterial Viruses, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2008.
  109. S. T. Abedon, “Phage evolution and ecology,” Advances in Applied Microbiology, vol. 67, pp. 1–45, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. G. S. Stent, Molecular Biology of Bacterial Viruses, W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, Calif, USA, 1963.
  111. K. Dabrowska, K. Switała-Jelen, A. Opolski, B. Weber-Dabrowska, and A. Górski, “A review: bacteriophage penetration in vertebrates,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 7–13, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. A. Górski, E. Wazna, B. -W. Dabrowska, K. Switala-Jelén, and R. Miedzybrodzki, “Bacteriophage translocation,” FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 313–319, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  113. Y. Shao and I.-N. Wang, “Bacteriophage adsorption rate and optimal lysis time,” Genetics, vol. 180, no. 1, pp. 471–482, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. K. Carlson, “Working with bacteriophages: common techniques and methodological approaches,” in Bacteriophages: Biology and Applications, E. Kutter and A. Sulakvelidze, Eds., pp. 437–494, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  115. B. Anderson, M. H. Rashid, C. Carter et al., “Enumeration of bacteriophage particles: comparative analysis of the traditional plaque assay and real-time,” Bacteriophage, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 86–93, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  116. S. T. Abedon, “Envisaging bacteria as phage targets,” Bacteriophage, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 228–230, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  117. S. Abedon, “Phage therapy pharmacology: calculating phage dosing,” Advances in Applied Microbiology, vol. 77, pp. 1–40, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. R. Moldovan, E. Chapman-McQuiston, and X. L. Wu, “On kinetics of phage adsorption,” Biophysical Journal, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 303–315, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. P. Hyman and S. T. Abedon, “Practical methods for determining phage growth parameters,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 501, pp. 175–202, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. Z. J. Storms, E. Arsenault, D. Sauvageau, and D. G. Cooper, “Bacteriophage adsorption efficiency and its effect on amplification,” Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 823–831, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. U. Henning and S. Hashemolhosseini, “Receptor recognition by T-even type coliphages,” in The Molecular Biology of Bacteriophage T4, J. D. Karam, F. A. Eiserling, and L. W. Black, Eds., pp. 291–298, ASM Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  122. J. J. Bull, G. Otto, and I. J. Molineux, “In vivo growth rates are poorly correlated with phage therapy success in a mouse infection model,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 949–954, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. E. Kutter, R. Raya, and K. Carlson, “Molecular mechanisms of phage infection,” in Bacteriophages: Biology and Applications, E. Kutter and A. Sulakvelidze, Eds., pp. 165–222, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  124. E. Kutter, E. Kellenberger, K. Carlson et al., “Effects of bacterial growth conditions and physiology on T4 infection,” in The Molecular Biology of Bacteriophage T4, J. D. Karam, E. Kutter, K. Carlson, and B. Guttman, Eds., pp. 406–418, ASM Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  125. N. Bandara, J. Jo, S. Ryu, and K.-P. Kim, “Bacteriophages BCP1-1 and BCP8-2 require divalent cations for efficient control of Bacillus cereus in fermented foods,” Food Microbiology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 9–16, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. K. E. Cerveny, A. dePaola, D. H. Duckworth, and P. A. Gulig, “Phage therapy of local and systemic disease caused by Vibrio vulnificus in iron-dextran-treated mice,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 70, no. 11, pp. 6251–6262, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. R. Keller and F. B. Engley Jr., “Fate of bacteriophage particles introduced into mice by various routes,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 577–580, 1958. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. K. S. Zobnina, “Excretion of dysentery bacteriophage by the kidneys of mice during experimental dysentery infection,” Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 1008–1011, 1963. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  129. B. Weber-Dabrowska, M. Dabrowski, and S. Slopek, “Studies on bacteriophage penetration in patients subjected to phage therapy,” Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 563–568, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. A. Górski, J. Borysowski, R. Miedzybrodzki, and B. Weber-Dabrowska, “Bacteriophages in medicine,” in Bacteriophage: Genetics and Microbiology, S. McGrath and D. van Sinderen, Eds., pp. 125–158, Caister Academic Press, Norfolk, UK, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  131. H. Nishikawa, M. Yasuda, J. Uchiyama et al., “T-even-related bacteriophages as candidates for treatment of Escherichia coli urinary tract infections,” Archives of Virology, vol. 153, no. 3, pp. 507–515, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. N. K. Jerne and P. Avegno, “The development of the phage-inactivating properties of serum during the course of specific immunization of an animal: reversible and irreversible inactivation,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 200–208, 1956. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. M. H. Adams, Bacteriophages, Interscience, New York, NY, USA, 1959.
  134. C. R. Merril, D. Scholl, and S. L. Adhya, “The prospect for bacteriophage therapy in Western medicine,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 489–497, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. A. Górski, R. Miedzybrodzki, J. Borysowski et al., “Phage as a modulator of immune responses: practical implications for phage therapy,” Advances in Virus Research, vol. 83, pp. 41–71, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  136. R. M. Carlton, “Phage therapy: past history and future prospects,” Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 267–274, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. C. R. Merril, B. Biswas, R. Carlton et al., “Long-circulating bacteriophage as antibacterial agents,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 93, no. 8, pp. 3188–3192, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. A. I. Nilsson, E. Kugelberg, O. G. Berg, and D. I. Andersson, “Experimental adaptation of Salmonella typhimurium to mice,” Genetics, vol. 168, no. 3, pp. 1119–1130, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. L. D. Goodridge, “Designing phage therapeutics,” Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 15–27, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. A. M. Lopes, P. O. Magalhães, P. G. Mazzola et al., “LPS removal from an E. coli fermentation broth using aqueous two-phase micellar system,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1644–1653, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. J. Boratyński, D. Syper, B. Weber-Ḑbrowska, M. Łusiak-Szelachowska, G. Poźniak, and A. Górski, “Preparation of endotoxin-free bacteriophages,” Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 253–259, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. J. J. Gill and P. Hyman, “Phage choice, isolation, and preparation for phage therapy,” Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 2–14, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. V. D. Paul, S. Sundarrajan, S. S. Rajagopalan et al., “Lysis-deficient phages as novel therapeutic agents for controlling bacterial infection,” BMC Microbiology, vol. 11, article 195, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. P. O. Magalhães, A. M. Lopes, P. G. Mazzola, C. Rangel-Yagui, T. C. V. Penna, and A. Pessoa Jr., “Methods of endotoxin removal from biological preparations: a review,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 388–404, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. L. Goodridge and S. T. Abedon, “Bacteriophage biocontrol—the technology matures,” Microbiology Australia, vol. 29, pp. 48–49, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  146. A. Vipra, S. N. Desai, R. P. Junjappa et al., “Determining the minimum inhibitory concentration of bacteriophages: potential advantages,” Advances in Microbiology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 181–190, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  147. J. Yin, “A quantifiable phenotype of viral propagation,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 174, no. 2, pp. 1009–1014, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. M. Weiss, E. Denou, A. Bruttin, R. Serra-Moreno, M.-L. Dillmann, and H. Brüssow, “In vivo replication of T4 and T7 bacteriophages in germ-free mice colonized with Escherichia coli,” Virology, vol. 393, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. J. Azeredo and I. W. Sutherland, “The use of phages for the removal of infectious biofilms,” Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 261–266, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. S. T. Abedon, “Disambiguating bacteriophage pseudolysogeny: an historical analysis of lysogeny, pseudolysogeny, and the phage carrier state,” in Contemporary Trends in Bacteriophage Research, H. T. Adams, Ed., pp. 285–307, Nova Science, Hauppauge, NY, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  151. A. K. Seth, M. R. Geringer, K. T. Nguyen et al., “Bacteriophage therapy for Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-infected wounds: a new approach to chronic wound care,” Plastic and Reconstrrutive Surgery, vol. 131, no. 2, pp. 225–234, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  152. F. d'Hérelle and G. H. Smith, The Bacteriophage and Its Clinical Application, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill, USA, 1930.
  153. S. Slopek, I. Durlakowa, B. Weber-Dabrowska, A. Kucharewicz-Krukowska, M. Dabrowski, and R. Bisikiewicz, “Results of bacteriophage treatment of suppurative bacterial infections—I. General evaluation of the results,” Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 267–291, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. D. H. Duckworth and P. A. Gulig, “Bacteriophages: potential treatment for bacterial infections,” BioDrugs, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 57–62, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. J. J. Bull, E. R. Vimr, and I. J. Molineux, “A tale of tails: sialidase is key to success in a model of phage therapy against K1-capsulated Escherichia coli,” Virology, vol. 398, no. 1, pp. 79–86, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. E. Kutter, “Phage host range and efficiency of plating,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 501, pp. 141–149, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. S. T. Abedon and J. Yin, “Impact of spatial structure on phage population growth,” in Bacteriophage Ecology, S. T. Abedon, Ed., pp. 94–113, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  158. S. T. Abedon and J. Yin, “Bacteriophage plaques: theory and analysis,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 501, pp. 161–174, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. T. Fukami and T. Yokoi, “The emerging role of human esterases,” Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 466–477, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  160. G. D. Wright, “Bacterial resistance to antibiotics: enzymatic degradation and modification,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 1451–1470, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. B. L. Mark, D. J. Vocadlo, and A. Oliver, “Providing β-lactams a helping hand: targeting the AmpC β-lactamase induction pathway,” Future Microbiology, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1415–1427, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  162. R. A. Gleckman and J. S. Czachor, “Antibiotic side effects,” Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 53–60, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. I. Leviton, “Separating fact from fiction: the data behind allergies and side effects caused by penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenem antibiotics,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 983–988, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. S. J. Labrie, J. E. Samson, and S. Moineau, “Bacteriophage resistance mechanisms,” Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 317–327, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. J. A. Hudson, T. Bigwood, A. Premaratne, C. Billington, B. Horn, and L. McIntyre, “Potential to use ultraviolet-treated bacteriophages to control foodborne pathogens,” Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 687–693, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. D. Scholl and D. W. Martin Jr., “Antibacterial efficacy of R-type pyocins towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a murine peritonitis model,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1647–1652, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. S. R. Williams, D. Gebhart, D. W. Martin, and D. Scholl, “Retargeting R-type pyocins to generate novel bactericidal protein complexes,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 74, no. 12, pp. 3868–3876, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. D. Scholl, M. Cooley, S. R. Williams et al., “An engineered R-type pyocin is a highly specific and sensitive bactericidal agent for the food-borne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 3074–3080, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. J. M. Ritchie, J. L. Greenwich, B. M. Davis et al., “An Escherichia coli O157-specific engineered pyocin prevents and ameliorates infection by E. coli O157:H7 in an animal model of diarrheal disease,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 5469–5474, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  170. S. T. Abedon, “Lysis from without,” Bacteriophage, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 46–49, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  171. K. Tait, L. C. Skilman, and I. W. Sutherland, “The efficacy of bacteriophage as a method of biofilm eradication,” Biofouling, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 305–311, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  172. D. Scholl and C. Merril, “Polysaccharide-degrading phages,” in Phages: Their Role in Bacterial Pathogenesis and Biotechnology, M. K. Waldor, D. I. Friedman, and S. L. Adhya, Eds., pp. 400–414, ASM Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  173. T. K. Lu and J. J. Collins, “Dispersing biofilms with engineered enzymatic bacteriophage,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 27, pp. 11197–11202, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  174. D. Scholl and C. Merril, “The genome of bacteriophage K1F, a T7-like phage that has acquired the ability to replicate on K1 strains of Escherichia coli,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 187, no. 24, pp. 8499–8503, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  175. J. Azeredo and I. W. Sutherland, “The use of phages for the removal of infectious biofilms,” Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 261–266, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  176. A. Cornelissen, P. J. Ceyssens, J. T'Syen et al., “The T7-related Pseudomonas putida phage phi15 displays virion-associated biofilm degradation properties,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 4, Article ID e18597, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  177. M. A. Fischbach and C. T. Walsh, “Antibiotics for emerging pathogens,” Science, vol. 325, no. 5944, pp. 1089–1093, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. J. A. Hawrelak and S. P. Myers, “The causes of intestinal dysbiosis: a review,” Alternative Medicine Review, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 180–197, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. M. C. Rea, A. Dobson, O. O'Sullivan et al., “Effect of broad- and narrow-spectrum antimicrobials on Clostridium difficile and microbial diversity in a model of the distal colon,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, supplement 1, pp. 4639–4644, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. D. A. Relman, “The human microbiome: ecosystem resilience and health,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 70, supplement 1, pp. S2–S9, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  181. R. L. Then and H.-G. Sahl, “Anti-Infective strategies of the future: is there room for species-specific antibacterial agents?” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 555–566, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  182. O. Cerf, B. Carpentier, and P. Sanders, “Tests for determining in-use concentrations of antibiotics and disinfectants are based on entirely different concepts: “resistance” has different meanings,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 136, no. 3, pp. 247–254, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. C. Adembri and A. Novelli, “Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of antimicrobials: potential for providing dosing regimens that are less vulnerable to resistance,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 517–528, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. J. J. Bull and R. R. Regoes, “Pharmacodynamics of non-replicating viruses, bacteriocins and lysins,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, vol. 273, no. 1602, pp. 2703–2712, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. S. T. Abedon, “Selection for lysis inhibition in bacteriophage,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 146, no. 4, pp. 501–511, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  186. J. L. Spouge, “Viral multiplicity of attachment and its implications for human immunodeficiency virus therapies,” Journal of Virology, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 1782–1789, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. S. T. Abedon, “Bacteriophage T4 resistance to lysis-inhibition collapse,” Genetical Research, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. R. J. H. Payne and V. A. A. Jansen, “Understanding bacteriophage therapy as a density-dependent kinetic process,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 208, no. 1, pp. 37–48, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  189. L. M. Kasman, A. Kasman, C. Westwater, J. Dolan, M. G. Schmidt, and J. S. Norris, “Overcoming the phage replication threshold: a mathematical model with implications for phage therapy,” Journal of Virology, vol. 76, no. 11, pp. 5557–5564, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. T. Bigwood, J. A. Hudson, and C. Billington, “Influence of host and bacteriophage concentrations on the inactivation of food-borne pathogenic bacteria by two phages,” FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 291, no. 1, pp. 59–64, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  191. S. T. Abedon, “Lysis and the interaction between free phages and infected cells,” in The Molecular Biology of Bacteriophage T4, J. D. Karam, E. Kutter, K. Carlson, and B. Guttman, Eds., pp. 397–405, ASM Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  192. T.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Lo, P.-W. Tseng, S.-F. Chang, Y.-T. Lin, and T.-S. Chen, “A T3 and T7 recombinant phage acquires efficient adsorption and a broader host range,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 2, Article ID e30954, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  193. J. D. Bouchard and S. Moineau, “Homologous recombination between a lactococcal bacteriophage and the chromosome of its host strain,” Virology, vol. 270, no. 1, pp. 65–75, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  194. R. W. Hendrix, M. C. M. Smith, R. N. Burns, M. E. Ford, and G. F. Hatfull, “Evolutionary relationships among diverse bacteriophages and prophages: all the world's a phage,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 96, no. 5, pp. 2192–2197, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  195. G. F. Hatfull and R. W. Hendrix, “Bacteriophages and their genomes,” Current Opinion in Virology, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 298–303, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  196. M. Krupovic, D. Prangishvili, R. W. Hendrix, and D. H. Bamford, “Genomics of bacterial and archaeal viruses: dynamics within the prokaryotic virosphere,” Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 610–635, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  197. V. N. Krylov, “Phage therapy in terms of bacteriophage genetics: hopes, prospects, safety, limitations,” Russian Journal of Genetics, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 715–730, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  198. S. T. Abedon and J. T. leJeune, “Why bacteriophage encode exotoxins and other virulence factors,” Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online, vol. 1, pp. 97–110, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  199. P. Hyman and S. T. Abedon, “Phage ecology of bacterial pathogenesis,” in Bacteriophage Ecology, S. T. Abedon, Ed., pp. 353–385, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  200. M. Los, J. Kuzio, M. R. McConnell, A. M. Kropinski, G. Wegrzyn, and G. E. Christie, “Lysogenic conversion in bacteria of importance to the food industry,” in Bacteriophages in the Control of Food-and Waterborne Pathogens, P. M. Sabour and M. W. Griffiths, Eds., pp. 157–198, ASM Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  201. V. Casas and S. Maloy, “Role of bacteriophage-encoded exotoxins in the evolution of bacterial pathogens,” Future Microbiology, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1461–1473, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  202. M. Colomer-Lluch, L. Imamovic, J. Jofre, and M. Muniesa, “Bacteriophages carrying antibiotic resistance genes in fecal waste from cattle, pigs, and poultry,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 4908–4911, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  203. S. Kuhl, P. Hyman, and S. T. Abedon, “Diseases caused by phages,” in Bacteriophages in Health and Disease, Hyman and S. T. Abedon, Eds., pp. 21–32, CABI Press, Wallingford, UK, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  204. J. C. Hurley, “Antibiotic-induced release of endotoxin—a therapeutic paradox,” Drug Safety, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 183–195, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  205. R. G. Holzheimer, “The significance of endotoxin release in experimental and clinical sepsis in surgical patients—evidence for antibiotic-induced endotoxin release?” Infection, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 77–84, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  206. R. G. Holzheimer, “Antibiotic induced endotoxin release and clinical sepsis: a review,” Journal of Chemotherapy, vol. 13, supplement 2, pp. 159–172, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  207. R. E. Lenski and B. R. Levin, “Constraints on the coevolution of bacteria and virulent phage: a model, some experiments, and predictions for natural communities,” American Naturalist, vol. 125, no. 4, pp. 585–602, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  208. B. R. Levin and R. E. Lenski, “Bacteria and phage: a model system for the study of the ecology and co-evolution of hosts and parasites,” in Ecology and Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions, D. Rollinson and R. M. Anderson, Eds., pp. 227–242, Academic Press, London, UK, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  209. R. E. Lenski, “Dynamics of interactions between bacteria and virulent bacteriophage,” Advances in Microbial Ecology, vol. 10, pp. 1–44, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  210. S. T. Abedon, “Impact of phage properties on bacterial survival,” in Contemporary Trends in Bacteriophage Research, H. T. Adams, Ed., pp. 217–235, Nova Science, Hauppauge, NY, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  211. B. J. Cairns and R. J. H. Payne, “Bacteriophage therapy and the mutant selection window,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 4344–4350, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  212. B. J. Cairns, A. R. Timms, V. A. A. Jansen, I. F. Connerton, and R. J. H. Payne, “Quantitative models of in vitro bacteriophage-host dynamics and their application to phage therapy,” PLoS Pathogens, vol. 5, no. 1, Article ID e1000253, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  213. R. J. Weld, C. Butts, and J. A. Heinemann, “Models of phage growth and their applicability to phage therapy,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 227, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  214. J. J. Gill, “Practical and theoretical considerations for the use of bacteriophages in food systems,” in Bacteriophages in the Control of Food-and Waterborne Pathogens, P. M. Sabour and M. W. Griffiths, Eds., pp. 217–235, ASM Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  215. F. Pouillot, H. Blois, and F. Iris, “Genetically engineered virulent phage banks in the detection and control of emergent pathogenic bacteria,” Biosecurity and Bioterrorism, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 155–169, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  216. J. S. Forbey and W. J. Foley, “PharmEcology: a pharmacological approach to understanding plant-herbivore interactions: an introduction to the symposium,” Integrative & Comparative Biology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 267–273, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  217. K. Bush, P. Courvalin, G. Dantas et al., “Tackling antibiotic resistance,” Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 894–896, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  218. J. M. Hughes, “Preserving the lifesaving power of antimicrobial agents,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 305, no. 10, pp. 1027–1028, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  219. A. Sulakvelidze, “Phage therapy: an attractive option for dealing with antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections,” Drug Discovery Today, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 807–809, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  220. R. Miedzybrodzki, W. Fortuna, B. Weber-Dabrowska, and A. Górski, “Phage therapy of staphylococcal infections (including MRSA) may be less expensive than antibiotic treatment,” Postepy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej, vol. 61, pp. 461–465, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  221. E. A. Eloe-Fadrosh and D. A. Rasko, “The human microbiome: from symbiosis to pathogenesis,” Annual Review of Medicine, vol. 64, pp. 145–163, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  222. K. McNair, B. A. Bailey, and R. A. Edwards, “PHACTS, a computational approach to classifying the lifestyle of phages,” Bioinformatics, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 614–618, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  223. C. Yilmaz, M. Colak, B. C. Yilmaz, G. Ersoz, M. Kutateladze, and M. Gozlugol, “Bacteriophage therapy in implant-related infections: an experimental study,” The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 117–125, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  224. Y. Zhang and Z. Hu, “Combined treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms with bacteriophages and chlorine,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 286–295, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  225. S. T. Abedon, “Spatial vulnerability: bacterial arrangements, microbiolonies, and biofilms as responses to low rather than high phage densities,” Viruses, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 663–687, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  226. S. T. Abedon, “Thinking about microcolonies as phage targets,” Bacteriophage, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 200–204, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  227. S. T. Abedon, “Bacterial “immunity” against bacteriophages,” Bacteriophage, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 50–54, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  228. E. Meader, M. Mayer, D. Steverding, S. R. Carding, and A. Narbad, “Evaluation of bacteriophage therapy to control Clostridium difficile and toxin production in an in vitro human colon model system,” Anaerobe, vol. 22, pp. 25–30, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  229. D. Tomat, L. Migliore, V. Aquili, A. Quiberoni, and C. Balague, “Phage biocontrol of enteropathogenic and shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in meat products,” Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, vol. 3, article 20, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  230. W. E. Huff, G. R. Huff, N. C. Rath, and A. M. Donoghue, “Method of administration affects the ability of bacteriophage to prevent colibacillosis in 1-day-old broiler chickens,” Poultry Science, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 930–934, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  231. D. Tomat, D. Mercanti, C. Balague, and A. Quiberoni, “Phage biocontrol of enteropathogenic and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli during milk fermentation,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 3–10, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  232. J. A. Hudson, C. Billington, A. J. Cornelius et al., “Use of a bacteriophage to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef,” Food Microbiology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 14–21, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  233. O. Boyacioglu, M. Sharma, A. Sulakvelidze, and I. Goktepe, “Biocontrol of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut leafy greens,” Bacteriophage, vol. 3, no. 1, Article ID e24620, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  234. S. Ferguson, C. Roberts, E. Handy, and M. Sharma, “Lytic bacteriophages reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh cut lettuce introduced through cross-contamination,” Bacteriophage, vol. 3, no. 1, Article ID e24323, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  235. G. Trigo, T. G. Martins, A. G. Fraga et al., “Phage therapy is effective against infection by Mycobacterium ulcerans in a murine footpad model,” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 7, no. 4, Article ID e2183, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  236. J. A. Lim, S. Jee, D. H. Lee et al., “Biocontrol of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum using bacteriophage PP1,” Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 1147–1153, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  237. A. Phee, J. Bondy-Denomy, A. Kishen, B. Basrani, A. Azarpazhooh, and K. Maxwell, “Efficacy of bacteriophage treatment on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms,” Journal of Endodontics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 364–369, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  238. Y. Zhang and Z. Hu, “Combined treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms with bacteriophages and chlorine,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 286–295, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  239. Y. Zhang, H. K. Hunt, and Z. Hu, “Application of bacteriophages to selectively remove Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water and wastewater filtration systems,” Water Research, vol. 47, no. 13, pp. 4507–4518, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  240. H. W. Kang, J. W. Kim, T. S. Jung, and G. J. Woo, “wksl3, a new biocontrol agent for Salmonella enteritidis and typhimurium in foods: characterization, application, sequence analysis, and oral acute toxicity study,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 79, no. 6, pp. 1956–1968, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  241. A. Henriques, R. Sereno, and A. Almeida, “Reducing Salmonella horizontal transmission during egg incubation by phage therapy,” Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 718–722, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  242. D. A. Spricigo, C. Bardina, P. Cortes, and M. Llagostera, “Use of a bacteriophage cocktail to control Salmonella in food and the food industry,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 165, no. 2, pp. 169–174, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  243. S. S. Hong, J. Jeong, J. Lee, S. Kim, W. G. Min, and H. Myung, “Therapeutic effects of bacteriophages against Salmonella gallinarum infection in chickens,” Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1478–1483, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  244. H. Zhang, R. Wang, and H. Bao, “Phage inactivation of foodborne Shigella on ready-to-eat spiced chicken,” Poultry Science, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 211–217, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  245. S. Chhibber, T. Kaur, and K. Sandeep, “Co-therapy using lytic bacteriophage and linezolid: effective treatment in eliminating methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from diabetic foot infections,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 2, Article ID e56022, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  246. A. Jaiswal, H. Koley, A. Ghosh, A. Palit, and B. Sarkar, “Efficacy of cocktail phage therapy in treating Vibrio cholerae infection in rabbit model,” Microbes and Infection, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 152–156, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  247. Y. Cohen, P. F. Joseph, E. Rosenberg, and D. G. Bourne, “Phage therapy treatment of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus,” MicrobiologyOpen, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 64–74, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  248. N. D. Thawal, A. B. Yele, P. K. Sahu, and B. A. Chopade, “Effect of a novel podophage AB7-IBB2 on Acinetobacter baumannii biofilm,” Current Microbiology, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 66–72, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  249. S. Orquera, G. Golz, S. Hertwig et al., “Control of Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica by virulent bacteriophages,” Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 273–278, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  250. E. M. Adriaenssens, J. van Vaerenbergh, D. Vandenheuvel et al., “T4-related bacteriophage LIMEstone isolates for the control of soft rot on potato caused by ‘Dickeya solani’,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 3, Article ID e33227, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  251. H. Li, M.-L. Ma, H.-J. Xie, and J. Kong, “Biosafety evaluation of bacteriophages for treatment of diarrhea due to intestinal pathogen Escherichia coli 3-2 infection of chickens,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  252. A. Chibeu, E. J. Lingohr, L. Masson et al., “Bacteriophages with the ability to degrade uropathogenic Escherichia Coli biofilms,” Viruses, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 471–487, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  253. E. M. Ryan, M. Y. Alkawareek, R. F. Donnelly, and B. F. Gilmore, “Synergistic phage-antibiotic combinations for the control of Escherichia coli biofilms in vitro,” FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 395–398, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  254. D. Maura, M. Galtier, B. C. Le, and L. Debarbieux, “Virulent bacteriophages can target O104:H4 enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 6235–6242, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  255. F. Pouillot, M. Chomton, H. Blois et al., “Efficacy of bacteriophage therapy in experimental sepsis and meningitis caused by a clone O25b:H4-ST131 Escherichia coli strain producing CTX-M-15,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 3568–3575, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  256. C. D. Carter, A. Parks, T. Abuladze et al., “Bacteriophage cocktail significantly reduces Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of lettuce and beef, but does not protect against recontamination,” Bacteriophage, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 178–185, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  257. S. Petrovski, D. Tillett, and R. J. Seviour, “Genome sequences and characterization of the related Gordonia phages GTE5 and GRU1 and their use as potential biocontrol agents,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 42–47, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  258. J. Gu, X. Liu, Y. Li et al., “A method for generation phage cocktail with great therapeutic potential,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 3, Article ID e31698, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  259. K. A. Soni, M. Desai, A. Oladunjoye, F. Skrobot, and R. Nannapaneni, “Reduction of Listeria monocytogenes in queso fresco cheese by a combination of listericidal and listeriostatic GRAS antimicrobials,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 155, no. 1-2, pp. 82–88, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  260. A. Vieira, Y. J. Silva, A. Cunha, N. C. Gomes, H. W. Ackermann, and A. Almeida, “Phage therapy to control multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa skin infections: in vitro and ex vivo experiments,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 3241–3249, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  261. K. Fukuda, W. Ishida, J. Uchiyama et al., “Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis in mice: effects of topical bacteriophage KPP12 administration,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 10, Article ID e47742, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  262. D. Alemayehu, P. G. Casey, O. Mcauliffe et al., “Bacteriophages ϕMR299-2 and ϕNH-4 can eliminate Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the murine lung and on cystic fibrosis lung airway cells,” mBio, vol. 3, no. 2, Article ID e00029-12, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  263. A. R. Hall, V. D. De, V. P. Friman, J. P. Pirnay, and A. Buckling, “Effects of sequential and simultaneous application of bacteriophages on populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in waxmoth larvae,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 78, no. 16, pp. 5646–5652, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  264. F. B. Iriarte, A. Obradovic, M. H. Wernsing et al., “Soil-based systemic delivery and phyllosphere in vivo propagation of bacteriophages: two possible strategies for improving bacteriophage persistence for plant disease control,” Bacteriophage, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 215–224, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  265. J. Y. Bae, J. Wu, H. J. Lee et al., “Biocontrol potential of a lytic bacteriophage PE204 against bacterial wilt of tomato,” Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1613–1620, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  266. T. H. Lim, M. S. Kim, D. H. Lee et al., “Use of bacteriophage for biological control of Salmonella enteritidis infection in chicken,” Research in Veterinary Science, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 1173–1178, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  267. C. Bardina, D. A. Spricigo, P. Cortes, and M. Llagostera, “Significance of the bacteriophage treatment schedule in reducing Salmonella colonization of poultry,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 78, no. 18, pp. 6600–6607, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  268. S. Guenther, O. Herzig, L. Fieseler, J. Klumpp, and M. J. Loessner, “Biocontrol of Salmonella typhimurium in RTE foods with the virulent bacteriophage FO1-E2,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 154, no. 1-2, pp. 66–72, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  269. E. Bueno, P. Garcia, B. Martinez, and A. Rodriguez, “Phage inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus in fresh and hard-type cheeses,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 158, no. 1, pp. 23–27, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  270. D. Kelly, O. Mcauliffe, R. P. Ross, and A. Coffey, “Prevention of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and reduction in established biofilm density using a combination of phage K and modified derivatives,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 286–291, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  271. Y. Cohen, P. F. Joseph, E. Rosenberg, and D. G. Bourne, “Phage therapy treatment of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus,” MicrobiologyOpen, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 64–67, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  272. A. A. Filippov, K. V. Sergueev, Y. He et al., “Bacteriophage therapy of experimental bubonic plague in mice,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 954, pp. 337–348, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar