Influenza Viral Manipulation of Sphingolipid Metabolism and Signaling to Modulate Host Defense System
The sphingolipid system. (a) The pathway of sphingolipid synthesis and degradation by catalytic enzymes. (b) Shown are chemical structures of the sphingolipids (ceramide, sphingosine, and S1P) and the sphingosine analogs (FTY720 and AAL-R).
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