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Scientifica
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 825463, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/825463
Review Article

Autophagy in Macrophages: Impacting Inflammation and Bacterial Infection

B-Cell Molecular Immunology Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 11N214, Center Drive, MSC 1876, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA

Received 15 January 2014; Accepted 28 February 2014; Published 9 April 2014

Academic Editor: Patrick Auberger

Copyright © 2014 Ali Vural and John H. Kehrl. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Macrophages are on the front line of host defense. They possess an array of germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors/sensors (PRRs) that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and which activate downstream effectors/pathways to help mediate innate immune responses and host defense. Innate immune responses include the rapid induction of transcriptional networks that trigger the production of cytokines, chemokines, and cytotoxic molecules; the mobilization of cells including neutrophils and other leukocytes; the engulfment of pathogens by phagocytosis and their delivery to lysosome for degradation; and the induction of autophagy. Autophagy is a catabolic process that normally maintains cellular homeostasis in a lysosome-dependent manner, but it also functions as a cytoprotective response that intersects with a variety of general stress-response pathways. This review focuses on the intimately linked molecular mechanisms that help govern the autophagic pathway and macrophage innate immune responses.