Scientifica / 2014 / Article / Fig 2

Review Article

Using the Neurofibromatosis Tumor Predisposition Syndromes to Understand Normal Nervous System Development

Figure 2

Cancer requires the deregulation of several normal developmental processes. Cells acquire at least five alterations that collectively lead to cancer: self-sufficiency in growth signals, loss of antigrowth signals, evasion of apoptosis, increased angiogenesis, and inappropriate tissue invasion. Tumor development begins when a cell (either a stem cell or a differentiated cell) acquires a mutation that increases its propensity to proliferate and decreases its ability to undergo apoptosis. Cell-cell interactions become subsequently deregulated to allow cancer cells to promote angiogenesis and tissue invasion (metastasis).