Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Scientifica
Volume 2016, Article ID 1387936, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1387936
Review Article

Onychomycosis: Potential of Nail Lacquers in Transungual Delivery of Antifungals

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Rajiv Academy for Pharmacy, P.O. Chhatikara, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh 281001, India
2Department of Pharmaceutics, Pharmacy College Saifai, Saifai, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh 206130, India

Received 30 December 2015; Revised 1 March 2016; Accepted 6 March 2016

Academic Editor: Paul O. Gubbins

Copyright © 2016 Nida Akhtar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. I. Vejnovic, L. Simmler, and G. Betz, “Investigation of different formulations for drug delivery through the nail plate,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 386, no. 1-2, pp. 185–194, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. B. Ahmadi, S. J. Hashemi, F. Zaini et al., “A case of onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus candidus,” Medical Mycology Case Reports, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 45–48, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. T. Roberts, W. D. Taylor, and J. Boyle, “Guidelines for treatment of onychomycosis,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 148, no. 3, pp. 402–410, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. P. Westerberg and M. J. Voyack, “Onychomycosis: current trends in diagnosis and treatment,” American Family Physician, vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 762–770, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. H. N. Shivakumar, A. Juluri, B. G. Desai, and S. N. Murthy, “Ungual and transungual drug delivery,” Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 901–911, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Firoz, M. N. Sirisha, and R. Rajalakshmi, “Transungual drug delivery: a review,” International Journal of Innovative Drug Discovery, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  7. M. Joshi, V. Sharma, and K. Pathak, “Matrix based system of isotretinoin as nail lacquer to enhance transungal delivery across human nail plate,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 478, no. 1, pp. 268–277, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. X. Hui, R. C. Wester, and H. I. Maibach, “Nail penetration,” in Textbook of Cosmetic Dermatology, R. Baran and H. Maibach, Eds., chapter 7, CRC Press, London, UK; Taylor & Francis, New York, NY, USA, 4th edition, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  9. O. Welsh, L. Vera-Cabrera, and E. Welsh, “Onychomycosis,” Clinics in Dermatology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 151–159, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Hussan, S. R. Choudhary, D. Sharma, V. Bhandari, and M. Singh, “Transungual drug delivery-a novel approach of unique features,” Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 4460–4469, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  11. P. T. Kumar and R. P. Narayana, “Transungual drug delivery: a promising rote to treat nail disorders,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 2, pp. 22–23, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  12. V. B. Rajendra, A. Baro, A. Kumari, D. L. Dhamecha, S. R. Lahoti, and S. D. Shelke, “Transungual drug delivery: an overview,” Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 203–209, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. X. Hui, R. C. Wester, S. Barbadillo et al., “Ciclopirox delivery into the human nail plate,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 93, no. 10, pp. 2545–2548, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Ghannoum, N. Isham, J. Herbert, W. Henry, and S. Yurdakul, “Activity of TDT 067 (terbinafine in transfersome) against agents of onychomycosis, as determined by minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1716–1720, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. S. Barot, P. B. Parejiya, H. K. Patel, D. M. Mehta, and P. K. Shelat, “Microemulsion-based antifungal gel delivery to nail for the treatment of onychomycosis: formulation, optimization, and efficacy studies,” Drug Delivery and Translational Research, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 463–476, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. J. R. Kumar, S. Muralidharan, and S. A. Dhanaraj, “Antifungual activity of microemulsion based fluconazole gel for onychomycosis against Aspergillus niger,” International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 96–102, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  17. S. Kumar, S. Talegaonkar, L. M. Negi, and Z. I. Khan, “Design and development of ciclopirox topical nanoemulsion gel for the treatment of subungual onychomycosis,” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 303–311, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. T. Tanriverdi and Ö. Özer, “Novel topical formulations of Terbinafine-HCl for treatment of onychomycosis,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 48, no. 4-5, pp. 628–636, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. Hafeez, X. Hui, M. Selner, B. Rosenthal, and H. Maibach, “Ciclopirox delivery into the human nail plate using novel lipid diffusion enhancers,” Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 838–844, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. U. Yadav, S. K. Prajapati, R. N. Prajapati, and R. Singh, “Development, optimization and characterization of topical nanoemulsion gel of an antifungual agent for effective treatment of onychomycosis,” Pharma Research Library, vol. 2, pp. 25–36, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  21. A. Täuber and C. C. Müller-Goymann, “In vitro permeation and penetration of ciclopirox olamine from poloxamer 407-based formulations—comparison of isolated human stratum corneum, bovine hoof plates and keratin films,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 489, no. 1-2, pp. 73–82, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. V. Bhatt and R. Pillai, “Efinaconazole topical solution, 10%: formulation development program of a new topical treatment of toenail onychomycosis,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 104, no. 7, pp. 2177–2182, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. T. Tanrıverdi, S. H. Polat, D. Y. Yeşim Metin, G. Kandiloğlu, and Ö. Özer, “Terbinafine hydrochloride loaded liposome film formulation for treatment of onychomycosis: in vitro and in vivo evaluation,” Journal of Liposome Research, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 163–173, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. A. Bseiso, M. Nasr, O. A. Sammour, and N. A. Abd El Gawad, “Novel nail penetration enhancer containing vesicles ‘nPEVs’ for treatment of onychomycosis,” Drug Delivery, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. December 2015, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.
  26. M. M. A. Elsayed, “Development of topical therapeutics for management of onychomycosis and other nail disorders: a pharmaceutical perspective,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 199, pp. 132–144, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Sakamoto, N. Sugimoto, H. Kavvabata et al., “Transungual delivery of efinaconazole: its deposition in the nail of onychomycosis patients and in vitro fungicidal activity in human nails,” Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1388–1392, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. December 2015, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00413218?term=candidiasis&lead=astellas&rank=9.
  29. J. J. Finch and S. Jinna, “Spotlight on tavaborole for the treatment of onychomycosis,” Drug Design, Development and Therapy, vol. 9, pp. 6185–6190, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. A. K. Gupta and F. C. Simpson, “New pharmacotherapy for the treatment of onychomycosis: an update,” Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 227–236, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. K. Gupta and C. Studholme, “Novel investigational therapies for onychomycosis: an update,” Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 297–305, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. R. J. Gyurik, “Nail lacquer pharmaceutical composition,” Tech. Rep. CA 2400178 A1, Bentley Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cpex Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 2001. View at Google Scholar
  33. M. B. Bednarek and C. Scopazzi, “Nail polish compositions containing acrylic polymers,” US 6254878 B1, E.T. Du Pont De Nemours & Company, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  34. S. F. Reeves, “Therapeutic anti-fungual nail preparation,” US 6391879 B1, Astan, Inc, 2002.
  35. C. M. Samour, “Antifungual nail lacquer and method using same,” US 6495124 B1, Macrochem Corporation, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  36. J. R. Bartholomew and C. P. Hines, “Nail polish selection method,” Tech. Rep. US 6622064 B2, Imx Labs, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  37. D. Mariono, “Natural nail polish,” US 8771655 B2, 2014.
  38. C. Nelson, “Method of coloring nails and a nail polish formulation,” US 20120178056 A1, 2012.
  39. M. M. Homma and V. M. Homma, “Long lasting finger nail lacquer and method for manufacture,” US 20130149266 A1, 2013.
  40. P. M. Chang, C. H. Chang, and Y. C. Chang, “Nail lacquer composition with hyposensitivity,” US 20150190331 A1, Pakaly Enterprise, 2015.
  41. B. Borsakian and J. Faraci, “Color changing nail polish,” Patent WO 2003007675 A2, 2003.
  42. R. Baran, R. J. Hay, and J. I. Garduno, “Review of antifungal therapy and the severity index for assessing onychomycosis: part I,” Journal of Dermatological Treatment, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 72–81, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. N. Zaias, The Nail in Health and Disease, Appleton and Bange, Connecticut, 2nd edition, 1990.
  44. D. de Berker, “Management of psoriatic nail disease,” Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 39–43, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. K. A. Smith, J. Hao, and S. K. Li, “Effects of organic solvents on the barrier properties of human nail,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 100, no. 10, pp. 4244–4257, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. N. B. Pati, B. K. Dey, S. Das, and S. Sahoo, “Nail drug delivery system: a review,” Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 101–109, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  47. H. Gradišar, J. Friedrich, I. Križaj, and R. Jerala, “Similarities and specificities of fungal keratinolytic proteases,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 71, no. 7, pp. 3420–3426, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. C. Grover, S. Bansal, S. Nanda, B. S. N. Reddy, and V. Kumar, “Combination of surgical avulsion and topical therapy for single nail onychomycosis: a randomized controlled trial,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 157, no. 2, pp. 364–368, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. Murdan, “Erratum to Drug delivery to the nail following topical application,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 236, no. 1-2, pp. 1–26, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. L.-J. Chen, Q.-F. Meng, Y.-M. Chen, R. J. Smales, and K. H.-K. Yip, “Effect of fluoride iontophoresis on the microtensile bond strength between dentin and two adhesive systems,” Journal of Dentistry, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 697–702, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. Murdan, M. Mohorčič, A. Torkar, J. Friedrich, and J. Kristl, “An investigation into keratinolytic enzymes to enhance ungual drug delivery,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 332, no. 1-2, pp. 196–201, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. Kushwaha, P. Sharma, C. Rappleye, A. Zukiwski, S. Proniuk, and S. N. Murthy, AAPS Annual meeting and Exposition, Orange Country Convention Center, Orlando, Fla, USA, 2015, http://abstracts.aaps.org/Verify/AAPS2015/PosterSubmissions/R6046.pdf.
  53. S. Naumann, J.-P. Meyer, A. Kiesow, Y. Mrestani, J. Wohlrab, and R. H. H. Neubert, “Controlled nail delivery of a novel lipophilic antifungal agent using various modern drug carrier systems as well as in vitro and ex vivo model systems,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 180, no. 1, pp. 60–70, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. K. V. Vipin, C. C. Sarath, R. A. Ann, K. Premaletha, and M. R. Kuriakose, “Formulation and evaluation of an antifungual nail lacquer for onychomycosis,” British Biomedical Bulletin, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 242–248, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  55. A. S. Dessai, D. Shripathi, and A. R. Shabaraya, “Formulation and in vitro characterization of nail lacquer containing fluconazole for preungual drug delivery system,” International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 200–214, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  56. D. Miron, R. Cornelio, J. Troleis et al., “Influence of penetration enhancers and molecular weight in antifungals permeation through bovine hoof membranes and prediction of efficacy in human nails,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 20–25, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. P. Chouhan and T. R. Saini, “Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin: a novel transungual permeation enhancer for development of topical drug delivery system for onychomycosis,” Journal of Drug Delivery, vol. 2014, Article ID 950358, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. F. Hafeez, X. Hui, A. Chiang, S. Hornby, and H. Maibach, “Transungual delivery of ketoconazole using novel lacquer formulation,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 456, no. 2, pp. 357–361, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. K. R. Shireesh, C. B. Shekar, P. Vishnu, and M. V. V. Prasad, “Ungual drug delivery system of ketoconazole nail lacquer,” International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 17–19, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  60. M. J. Traynor, R. B. Turner, C. R. G. Evans, R. H. Khengar, S. A. Jones, and M. B. Brown, “Effect of a novel penetration enhancer on the ungual permeation of two antifungal agents,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 730–737, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. H. B. Gunt and G. B. Kasting, “Effect of hydration on the permeation of ketoconazole through human nail plate in vitro,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 32, no. 4-5, pp. 254–260, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. X. Hui, T. C. K. Chan, S. Barbadillo, C. Lee, H. I. Maibach, and R. C. Wester, “Enhanced econazole penetration into human nail by 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 142–148, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. X. Hui, S. J. Baker, R. C. Wester et al., “In vitro penetration of a novel oxaborole antifungal (AN2690) into the human nail plate,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 96, no. 10, pp. 2622–2631, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. B. Nair, S. M. Sammeta, S. R. K. Vaka, and S. N. Murthy, “A study on the effect of inorganic salts in transungual drug delivery of terbinafine,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 431–437, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. X. Hui, S. B. Hornby, R. C. Wester, S. Barbadillo, Y. Appa, and H. Maibach, “In vitro human nail penetration and kinetics of panthenol,” International Journal of Cosmetic Science, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 277–282, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. B. Nair, H. D. Kim, B. Chakraborty et al., “Ungual and trans-ungual iontophoretic delivery of terbinafine for the treatment of onychomycosis,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 98, no. 11, pp. 4130–4140, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. Kumar and A. B. Kimball, “New antifungal therapies for the treatment of onychomycosis,” Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 727–734, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. Bonifaz and G. Ibarra, “Onychomycosis in children: treatment with bifonazole-urea,” Pediatric Dermatology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 310–314, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. B. M. Piraccini, G. Rech, and A. Tosti, “Photodynamic therapy of onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. S75–S76, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. Lecha, “Amorolfine and itraconazole combination for severe toenail onychomycosis; results of an open randomized trial in Spain,” British Journal of Dermatology, Supplement, vol. 145, no. 60, pp. 21–26, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. Y. Sergeev and A. Sergeev, “Pulsed combination therapy: a new option for onychomycosis,” Mycoses, vol. 44, pp. 68–69, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  72. R. Baran and A. Kaoukhov, “Topical antifungal drugs for the treatment of onychomycosis: an overview of current strategies for monotherapy and combination therapy,” Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 21–29, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. A. K. Gupta, C. W. Lynde, and N. Konnikov, “Single-blind, randomized, prospective study of sequential itraconazole and terbinafine pulse compared with terbinafine pulse for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 485–491, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. X. Hui, Z. Shainhouse, H. Tanojo et al., “Enhanced human nail drug delivery: nail inner drug content assayed by new unique method,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 189–195, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. S. N. Murthy, S. R. K. Vaka, S. M. Sammeta, and A. B. Nair, “TranScreen-N: method for rapid screening of trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 98, no. 11, pp. 4264–4271, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. S. N. Murthy and H. I. Maibach, Topical Nail Products and Ungual Drug Delivery, Edited by S. N. Murthy and H. I. Maibach, CRC Press, London, UK; Taylor & Francis Group, New York, NY, USA, 2012.