Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Scientifica
Volume 2016, Article ID 2572056, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2572056
Research Article

Status and Trend of Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the 4th of July Butterfly Count Program in 1977–2014

909 Birch Street, Baraboo, WI 53913, USA

Received 22 December 2015; Accepted 7 April 2016

Academic Editor: Gerlind Lehmann

Copyright © 2016 Scott R. Swengel and Ann B. Swengel. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. B. Swengel, “Monitoring butterfly populations using the Fourth of July butterfly count,” American Midland Naturalist, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 395–406, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. B. Swengel, “Species richness in southern Ontario,” American Butterflies, vol. 13, no. 4, article 47, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  3. R. K. Walton and L. P. Brower, “Monitoring the fall migration of the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus L. (Nymphalidae: Danainae) in eastern North America: 1991-1994,” Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 1–20, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. Vandenbosch, “What do monarch population time series tell us about eastern and western population mixing?” Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 28–31, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. Ries, D. J. Taron, and E. Rendón-Salinas, “The disconnect between summer and winter Monarch trends for the Eastern Migratory Population: possible links to differing drivers,” Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 691–699, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. B. Swengel and S. R. Swengel, “Grass-skipper (Hesperiinae) trends in midwestern USA grasslands during 1988–2013,” Journal of Insect Conservation, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 279–292, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. W. D. Koenig, “Spatial synchrony of monarch butterflies,” American Midland Naturalist, vol. 155, no. 1, pp. 39–49, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. Ries and S. P. Mullen, “A rare model limits the distribution of its more common mimic: a twist on frequency-dependent batesian mimicry,” Evolution, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 1798–1803, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. D. Kocher and E. H. Williams, “The diversity and abundance of North American butterflies vary with habitat disturbance and geography,” Journal of Biogeography, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 785–794, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. D. Meehan, J. Glassberg, and C. Gratton, “Butterfly community structure and landscape composition in agricultural landscapes of the central United States,” Journal of Insect Conservation, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 411–419, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. Pollard and T. J. Yates, Monitoring Butterflies for Ecology and Conservation, Chapman and Hall, London, UK, 1993.
  12. R. A. Royer, J. E. Austin, and W. E. Newton, “Checklist and ‘Pollard Walk’ butterfly survey methods on public lands,” The American Midland Naturalist, vol. 140, no. 2, pp. 358–371, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. M. Brereton, K. L. Cruickshanks, K. Risely, D. G. Noble, and D. B. Roy, “Developing and launching a wider countryside butterfly survey across the United Kingdom,” Journal of Insect Conservation, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 279–290, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Lang, C. Bühler, M. Dolek, T. Roth, and W. Züghart, “Estimating sampling efficiency of diurnal Lepidoptera in farmland,” Journal of Insect Conservation, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 35–48, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. D. Schlicht, A. B. Swengel, and S. R. Swengel, “Meta-analysis of survey data to assess trends of prairie butterflies in Minnesota, USA during 1979–2005,” Journal of Insect Conservation, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 429–447, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. N. Wells and D. W. Tonkyn, “Range collapse in the Diana fritillary, Speyeria diana (Nymphalidae),” Insect Conservation and Diversity, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 365–380, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. A. Opler and G. O. Krizek, Butterflies East of the Great Plains, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1984.
  18. J. A. Scott, The Butterflies of North America, Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif, USA, 1986.
  19. P. C. Hammond and D. V. McCorkle, “The decline and extinction of Speyeria populations resulting from human environmental disturbances (Nymphalidae: Argynninae),” Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, vol. 22, pp. 217–224, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  20. K. Johnson, “Prairie and plains disclimax and disappearing butterflies in the central United States,” Atala, vol. 10–12, pp. 20–30, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  21. D. Schweitzer, “Regal fritillaries in the East,” American Butterflies, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 9, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  22. A. B. Swengel, “Regal fritillary: prairie royalty,” American Butterflies, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 4–12, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  23. T. J. Allen, The Butterflies of West Virginia and Their Caterpillars, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, Pa, USA, 1997.
  24. D. M. Debinski and L. Kelly, “Decline of Iowa populations of the regal fritillary (Speyeria idalia) Drury,” Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 16–22, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  25. R. A. Layberry, P. W. Hall, and J. D. Lafontaine, The Butterflies of Canada, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada, 1998.
  26. D. W. Schlicht and T. T. Orwig, “The status of Iowa’s Lepidoptera,” Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 82–88, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  27. B. Williams, “Regal fritillaries in a tailspin,” American Butterflies, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 16–25, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  28. D. L. Wagner, M. S. Wallace, G. H. Boettner, and J. S. Elkinton, “Status update and life history studies on the regal fritillary (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae),” in Grasslands of Northeastern North America: Ecology and Conservation of Native and Agricultural Landscapes, P. D. Vickery and P. W. Dunwiddie, Eds., pp. 261–275, Massachusetts Audubon Society, Lincoln, Mass, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  29. L. Kelly and D. M. Debinski, “Relationship of host plant density to size and abundance of the regal fritillary Speyeria idalia Drury (nymphalidae),” Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 262–276, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. B. Swengel and S. R. Swengel, “A ten-year study of the status and trend of the regal fritillary (Speyeria idalia) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Wisconsin, U.S.A.,” The Great Lakes Entomologist, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 111–128, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. B. Swengel and S. R. Swengel, “A ten-year study to monitor populations of the regal fritillary, Speyeria idalia, (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Wisconsin, U.S.A,” The Great Lakes Entomologist, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 97–115, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. B. Swengel and S. R. Swengel, “Spatiotemporal variation of violet-feeding large fritillaries (Euptoieta, Speyeria) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in central and northern Wisconsin,” The Great Lakes Entomologist, vol. 42, pp. 121–138, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  33. A. F. L. A. Powell, W. H. Busby, and K. Kindscher, “Status of the regal fritillary (Speyeria idalia) and effects of fire management on its abundance in northeastern Kansas, USA,” Journal of Insect Conservation, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 299–308, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. Ferster and K. Vulinec, “Population size and conservation of the last eastern remnants of the regal fritillary, Speyeria idalia (Drury) [Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae]; implications for temperate grassland restoration,” Journal of Insect Conservation, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 31–42, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. R. Swengel, D. Schlicht, F. Olsen, and A. B. Swengel, “Declines of prairie butterflies in the midwestern USA,” Journal of Insect Conservation, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 327–339, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. US Fish and Wildlife Service, “Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; 90-day findings on 25 petitions,” Federal Register, vol. 80, no. 181, pp. 56423–56432, 2015, http://www.fws.gov/midwest/es/soc/pdf/FRBatch90DayFndngs18Sept2015PIversion.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  37. A. B. Swengel, “Effects of fire and hay management on abundance of prairie butterflies,” Biological Conservation, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 73–85, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. B. Swengel and S. R. Swengel, “Paradoxes of poweshiek skipperling (Oarisma poweshiek) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae): abundance patterns and management of a highly imperiled prairie species,” ISRN Entomology, vol. 2014, Article ID 216427, 10 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. A. B. Swengel and S. R. Swengel, “Benefit of permanent non-fire refugia for Lepidoptera conservation in fire-managed sites,” Journal of Insect Conservation, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 263–279, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H. Nagel, T. Nightengale, and N. Dankert, “Regal fritillary butterfly population estimation and natural history on Rowe Sanctuary, Nebraska,” Prairie Naturalist, vol. 23, pp. 145–152, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  41. A. B. Swengel, “Effects of management on butterfly abundance in tallgrass prairie and pine barrens,” Biological Conservation, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 77–89, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. A. Moranz, S. D. Fuhlendorf, and D. M. Engle, “Making sense of a prairie butterfly paradox: the effects of grazing, time since fire, and sampling period on regal fritillary abundance,” Biological Conservation, vol. 173, pp. 32–41, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. J. van Strien, C. A. M. van Swaay, and T. Termaat, “Opportunistic citizen science data of animal species produce reliable estimates of distribution trends if analysed with occupancy models,” Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1450–1458, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus