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Scientifica
Volume 2016, Article ID 3987460, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3987460
Research Article

The Association between Birth Weight and Gestational Age and Asthma in 6-7- and 13-14-Year-Old Children

1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, International Branch, Basij Avenue, P.O. Box 4815733971, Juybar, Sari, Iran
2Infectious Diseases Department and Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Basij Avenue, P.O. Box 4815733971, Juybar, Sari, Iran
3Community Medicine Department, Gilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
4Epidemiology & Biostatistics Department, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5Ramsar Branch of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Basij Avenue, P.O. Box 4815733971, Juybar, Sari, Iran

Received 11 December 2015; Revised 6 April 2016; Accepted 4 May 2016

Academic Editor: Marek Sanak

Copyright © 2016 Zamani Raheleh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Previous studies that assessed the role of birth weight and gestational age in the risk of asthma have been conflicting. Objectives. To examine the association between birth weight and gestational age and symptoms of asthma. Patients and Methods. Subjects were 6656 school children of ages 6-7 and 13-14 years from urban districts of Mazandaran, Iran. ISAAC questionnaires were used. Results. There was an increased risk of “wheeze ever” in both age groups with birth weight under 2.5 kg and in all subgroups of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weight more than 3.5 kg was associated with lower risk of “severe asthma” in age group 6-7 years. With respect to gestational age, higher risks of “wheeze ever,” “asthma ever,” and “night cough in the past 12 months” were found in age group 13-14 years born before 37 weeks and the risk of “severe asthma” was higher in younger group (6-7 years). A lower risk of "asthma ever" was also found in 6-7-year-old children and 13-14-year-old girls who were born after 40 weeks. Conclusions. This study showed that there is a direct relation between “wheeze ever” and LBW and an inverse relation between risk of “severe asthma” and birth weight more than 3.5 kg.