Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Scientifica
Volume 2016, Article ID 4516920, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4516920
Review Article

Advances in the Use of Stem Cells in Veterinary Medicine: From Basic Research to Clinical Practice

Laboratório de Cardiologia Molecular e Celular, Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia/Instituto de Cardiologia, Princesa Isabel Avenue 370, 90620-001 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

Received 31 December 2015; Revised 30 March 2016; Accepted 16 May 2016

Academic Editor: Mustapha Najimi

Copyright © 2016 Melissa Medeiros Markoski. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Collart-Dutilleul, F. Chaubron, J. De Vos, and F. J. Cuisinier, “Allogenic banking of dental pulp stem cells for innovative therapeutics,” World Journal of Stem Cells, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 1010–1021, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  2. C. D. Porada and G. Almeida-Porada, “Mesenchymal stem cells as therapeutics and vehicles for gene and drug delivery,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 1156–1166, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. W. Lane, D. A. Williams, and F. M. Watt, “Modulating the stem cell niche for tissue regeneration,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 795–803, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. Drago, C. Cossetti, N. Iraci et al., “The stem cell secretome and its role in brain repair,” Biochimie, vol. 95, no. 12, pp. 2271–2285, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Attal, J.-L. Harousseau, A.-M. Stoppa et al., “A prospective, randomized trial of autologous bone marrow transplantation and chemotherapy in multiple myeloma,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 335, no. 2, pp. 91–97, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Imamura and J. Tanaka, “Graft-versus-leukemia effect of nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation,” Korean Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 287–298, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. Ojeh, I. Pastar, M. Tomic-Canic, and O. Stojadinovic, “Stem cells in skin regeneration, wound healing, and their clinical applications,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 25476–25501, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. W. Volk and C. Theoret, “Translating stem cell therapies: the role of companion animals in regenerative medicine,” Wound Repair and Regeneration, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 382–394, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. M. Dehghan, M. B. Eslaminejad, N. Motallebizadeh et al., “Transplantation of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with platelet-rich plasma accelerate distraction osteogenesis in a canine model,” Cell Journal, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 243–252, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. da Silva Meirelles, P. C. Chagastelles, and N. B. Nardi, “Mesenchymal stem cells reside in virtually all post-natal organs and tissues,” Journal of Cell Science, vol. 119, no. 11, pp. 2204–2213, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. J. Snippert and H. Clevers, “Tracking adult stem cells,” EMBO Reports, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 113–122, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Marx, M. D. Silveira, I. Selbach et al., “Acupoint injection of autologous stromal vascular fraction and allogeneic adipose-derived stem cells to treat hip dysplasia in dogs,” Stem Cells International, vol. 2014, Article ID 391274, 6 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. Torricelli, M. Fini, G. Filardo et al., “Regenerative medicine for the treatment of musculoskeletal overuse injuries in competition horses,” International Orthopaedics, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 1569–1576, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Isern, A. García-García, A. M. Martín et al., “The neural crest is a source of mesenchymal stem cells with specialized hematopoietic stem cell niche function,” eLife, vol. 3, Article ID e03696, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. M. Mimeault and S. K. Batra, “Recent progress on tissue-resident adult stem cell biology and their therapeutic implications,” Stem Cell Reviews, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 27–49, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. F. Ferraro, C. L. Celso, and D. Scadden, “Adult stem cels and their niches,” in The Cell Biology of Stem Cells, E. Meshorer and K. Plath, Eds., vol. 695 of Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, pp. 155–168, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. B. Parekkadan and J. M. Milwid, “Mesenchymal stem cells as therapeutics,” Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, vol. 12, pp. 87–117, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Shin and D. A. Peterson, “Human mesenchymal stem cell grafts enhance normal and impaired wound healing by recruiting existing endogenous tissue stem/progenitor cells,” Stem Cells Translational Medicine, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 33–42, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. Ito and T. Suda, “Metabolic requirements for the maintenance of self-renewing stem cells,” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 243–256, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. G. Koch, L. C. Berg, and D. H. Betts, “Concepts for the clinical use of stem cells in equine medicine,” Canadian Veterinary Journal, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1009–1017, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. A. Thomson, J. Itskovitz-Eldor, S. S. Shapiro et al., “Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts,” Science, vol. 282, no. 5391, pp. 1145–1147, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. Solter, “From teratocarcinomas to embryonic stem cells and beyond: a history of embryonic stem cell research,” Nature Reviews Genetics, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 319–327, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. Tosca, O. Feraud, A. Magniez et al., “Genomic instability of human embryonic stem cell lines using different passaging culture methods,” Molecular Cytogenetics, vol. 8, no. 1, article 30, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. A. Robinton and G. Q. Daley, “The promise of induced pluripotent stem cells in research and therapy,” Nature, vol. 481, no. 7381, pp. 295–305, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. Ye, C. Swingen, and J. Zhang, “Induced pluripotent stem cells and their potential for basic and clinical sciences,” Current Cardiology Reviews, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 63–72, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. Li and T. Xie, “Stem cell niche: structure and function,” Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, vol. 21, pp. 605–631, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Rompolas, K. R. Mesa, and V. Greco, “Spatial organization within a niche as a determinant of stem-cell fate,” Nature, vol. 502, no. 7472, pp. 513–518, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Bukovsky, M. R. Caudle, R. J. Carson et al., “Immune physiology in tissue regeneration and aging, tumor growth, and regenerative medicine,” Aging, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 157–181, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. N. B. Nardi, “All the adult stem cells, where do they all come from? An external source for organ-specific stem cell pools,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 811–817, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. E. O'Brien and D. Bilder, “Beyond the niche: tissue-level coordination of stem cell dynamics,” Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, vol. 29, pp. 107–136, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. J. P. Westen, A. Gaulton, and J. P. Overington, “Chemical, target, and bioactive properties of allosteric modulation,” PLoS Computational Biology, vol. 10, no. 4, Article ID e1003559, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. T. J. Kean, P. Lin, A. I. Caplan, and J. E. Dennis, “MSCs: delivery routes and engraftment, cell-targeting strategies, and immune modulation,” Stem Cells International, vol. 2013, Article ID 732742, 13 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. A. Marquez-Curtis and A. Janowska-Wieczorek, “Enhancing the migration ability of mesenchymal stromal cells by targeting the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 561098, 15 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Mittal, M. R. Siddiqui, K. Tran, S. P. Reddy, and A. B. Malik, “Reactive oxygen species in inflammation and tissue injury,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1126–1167, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. R. Bortolon, A. J. D. A. Silva Jr., G. M. Murata et al., “Persistence of inflammatory response to intense exercise in diabetic rats,” Experimental Diabetes Research, vol. 2012, Article ID 213986, 8 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. A. McArdle, O. M. Finucane, R. M. Connaughton, A. M. McMorrow, and H. M. Roche, “Mechanisms of obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance: insights into the emerging role of nutritional strategies,” Frontiers in Endocrinology, vol. 4, article 52, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. M. Mihaylova, D. M. Sabatini, and Ö. H. Yilmaz, “Dietary and metabolic control of stem cell function in physiology and cancer,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 292–305, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Arnhold and S. Wenisch, “Adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells for musculoskeletal repair in veterinary medicine,” American Journal of Stem Cells, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  39. A. J. B. O. G. Salgado, R. L. G. Reis, N. J. C. Sousa, and J. M. Gimble, “Adipose tissue derived stem cells secretome: soluble factors and their roles in regenerative medicine,” Current Stem Cell Research and Therapy, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 103–110, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. Bourin, B. A. Bunnell, L. Casteilla et al., “Stromal cells from the adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction and culture expanded adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells: a joint statement of the International Federation for Adipose Therapeutics and Science (IFATS) and the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT),” Cytotherapy, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 641–648, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. Marx, M. D. Silveira, and N. B. Nardi, “Adipose-derived stem cells in veterinary medicine: characterization and therapeutic applications,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 803–813, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. P. Lennon and A. I. Caplan, “Isolation of human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells,” Experimental Hematology, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1604–1605, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. I. Bronzini, M. Patruno, I. Iacopetti, and T. Martinello, “Influence of temperature, time and different media on mesenchymal stromal cells shipped for clinical application,” Veterinary Journal, vol. 194, no. 1, pp. 121–123, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K. S. Lee, H. W. Kang, H. T. Lee et al., “Sequential sub-passage decreases the differentiation potential of canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells,” Research in Veterinary Science, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 267–275, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. T. Martinello, I. Bronzini, L. Maccatrozzo et al., “Canine adipose-derived-mesenchymal stem cells do not lose stem features after a long-term cryopreservation,” Research in Veterinary Science, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 18–24, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. Petters, A. L. Oliveira, M. M. Markoski et al., “Indução da miocardiopatia isquêmica em modelo experimental de miniporco,” Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, vol. 35, pp. 45–48, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  47. N. M. Vieira, V. Brandalise, E. Zucconi, M. Secco, B. E. Strauss, and M. Zatz, “Isolation, characterization, and differentiation potential of canine adipose-derived stem cells,” Cell Transplantation, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 279–289, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. E. Raposio, G. Caruana, M. Petrella, S. Bonomini, and M. P. Grieco, “A standardized method of isolating adipose-derived stem cells for clinical applications,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 124–126, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. W. P. Cawthorn, E. L. Scheller, and O. A. MacDougald, “Adipose tissue stem cells meet preadipocyte commitment: going back to the future,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 227–246, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. W. Morcos, H. Al-Jallad, and R. Hamdy, “Comprehensive review of adipose stem cells and their implication in distraction osteogenesis and bone regeneration,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, Article ID 842975, 20 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. L. A. Fortier and A. J. Travis, “Stem cells in veterinary medicine,” Stem Cell Research and Therapy, vol. 2, no. 1, article 9, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Z. Wen, S. Zheng, C. Zhou, J. Wang, and T. Wang, “Repair mechanisms of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in myocardial infarction,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1032–1043, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Gnecchi, Z. Zhang, A. Ni, and V. J. Dzau, “Paracrine mechanisms in adult stem cell signaling and therapy,” Circulation Research, vol. 103, no. 11, pp. 1204–1219, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. I. Linero and O. Chaparro, “Paracrine effect of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human adipose tissue in bone regeneration,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 9, Article ID e177001, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D.-Y. Lu, C.-H. Tang, W.-L. Yeh et al., “SDF-1alpha up-regulates interleukin-6 through CXCR4, PI3K/Akt, ERK, and NF-kappaB-dependent pathway in microglia,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 613, no. 1–3, pp. 146–154, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. H. Chu and Y. Wang, “Therapeutic angiogenesis: controlled delivery of angiogenic factors,” Therapeutic Delivery, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 693–714, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. C. Linard, E. Busson, V. Holler et al., “Repeated autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell injections improve radiation-induced proctitis in pigs,” Stem Cells Translational Medicine, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 916–927, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. Cekanova and K. Rathore, “Animal models and therapeutic molecular targets of cancer: utility and limitations,” Drug Design, Development and Therapy, vol. 8, pp. 1911–1922, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. L. Ling, S. Murali, G. S. Stein, A. J. van Wijnen, and S. M. Cool, “Glycosaminoglycans modulate RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 109, no. 6, pp. 1222–1231, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. P. Bhoopathi, C. Chetty, V. R. Gogineni et al., “MMP-2 mediates mesenchymal stem cell tropism towards medulloblastoma tumors,” Gene Therapy, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 692–701, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Maldonado and J. Nam, “The role of changes in extracellular matrix of cartilage in the presence of inflammation on the pathology of osteoarthritis,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 284873, 10 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. L. M. Urdzíková, J. Růžička, M. LaBagnara et al., “Human mesenchymal stem cells modulate inflammatory cytokines after spinal cord injury in rat,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 11275–11293, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. H. Yagi, A. Soto-Gutierrez, B. Parekkadan et al., “Mesenchymal stem cells: mechanisms of immunomodulation and homing,” Cell Transplantation, vol. 19, no. 6-7, pp. 667–679, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. D. Polchert, J. Sobinsky, G. W. Douglas et al., “IFN-γ activation of mesenchymal stem cells for treatment and prevention of graft versus host disease,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1745–1755, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. N. G. Singer and A. I. Caplan, “Mesenchymal stem cells: mechanisms of inflammation,” Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease, vol. 6, pp. 457–478, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. D. D. Carrade and D. L. Borjesson, “Immunomodulation by mesenchymal stem cells in veterinary species,” Comparative Medicine, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 207–217, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. Chiesa, S. Morbelli, S. Morando et al., “Mesenchymal stem cells impair in vivo T-cell priming by dendritic cells,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, no. 42, pp. 17384–17389, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. W. Kang, K.-S. Kang, H. C. Koo, J. R. Park, E. W. Choi, and Y. H. Park, “Soluble factors-mediated immunomodulatory effects of canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 681–693, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. Khatri, T. D. O'Brien, and J. M. Sharma, “Isolation and differentiation of chicken mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1485–1492, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. R. Stavely, A. M. Robinson, S. Miller, R. Boyd, S. Sakkal, and K. Nurgali, “Human adult stem cells derived from adipose tissue and bone marrow attenuate enteric neuropathy in the guinea-pig model of acute colitis,” Stem Cell Research & Therapy, vol. 6, article 244, pp. 1–21, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. D. D. Carrade, M. W. Lame, M. S. Kent, K. C. Clark, N. J. Walker, and D. L. Borjesson, “Comparative analysis of the immunomodulatory properties of equine adult-derived mesenchymal stem cells,” Cell Medicine, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. R. Haddad and F. Saldanha-Araujo, “Mechanisms of T-cell immunosuppression by mesenchymal stromal cells: what do we know so far?” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 216806, 14 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. R. K. W. Smith, M. Korda, G. W. Blunn, and A. E. Goodship, “Isolation and implantation of autologous equine mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow into the superficial digital flexor tendon as a potential novel treatment,” Equine Veterinary Journal, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 99–102, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. E. R. Garvican, S. Cree, L. Bull, R. K. W. Smith, and J. Dudhia, “Viability of equine mesenchymal stem cells during transport and implantation,” Stem Cell Research and Therapy, vol. 5, no. 4, article 94, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. T. G. Koch, L. C. Berg, and D. H. Betts, “Current and future regenerative medicine—principles, concepts, and therapeutic use of stem cell therapy and tissue engineering in equine medicine,” The Canadian Veterinary Journal, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 155–165, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. K. W. Smith, N. J. Werling, S. G. Dakin, R. Alam, A. E. Goodship, and J. Dudhia, “Beneficial effects of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in naturally occurring tendinopathy,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 9, Article ID e75697, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. P. Filomeno, V. Dayan, and C. Touriño, “Stem cell research and clinical development in tendon repair,” Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 204–211, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. A. D. M. Carvalho, P. R. Badial, L. E. C. Álvarez et al., “Equine tendonitis therapy using mesenchymal stem cells and platelet concentrates: a randomized controlled trial,” Stem Cell Research and Therapy, vol. 4, no. 4, article 85, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. L. Bussche and G. R. van de Walle, “Peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells promote angiogenesis via paracrine stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor secretion in the equine model,” Stem Cells Translational Medicine, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 1514–1525, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. C. Tetta, A. L. Consiglio, S. Bruno et al., “The role of microvesicles derived from mesenchymal stem cells in tissue regeneration; a dream for tendon repair?” Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 212–221, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. T. A. E. Ahmed, E. V. Dare, and M. Hincke, “Fibrin: a versatile scaffold for tissue engineering applications,” Tissue Engineering—Part B: Reviews, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 199–215, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. A. Moshiri, A. Oryan, and A. Meimandi-Parizi, “Synthesis, development, characterization and effectiveness of bovine pure platelet gel-collagen-polydioxanone bioactive graft on tendon healing,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1308–1332, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. S. A. Abbah, K. Spanoudes, T. O'Brien, A. Pandit, and D. I. Zeugolis, “Assessment of stem cell carriers for tendon tissue engineering in pre-clinical models,” Stem Cell Research and Therapy, vol. 5, no. 2, article 38, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. G. J. V. M. Van Osch, M. Brittberg, J. E. Dennis et al., “Cartilage repair: past and future—lessons for regenerative medicine,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 792–810, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. S. Broeckx, M. Zimmerman, S. Crocetti et al., “Regenerative therapies for equine degenerative joint disease: a preliminary study,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 1, Article ID e85917, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. T. D. Bornes, A. B. Adesida, and N. M. Jomha, “Mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of traumatic articular cartilage defects: a comprehensive review,” Arthritis Research and Therapy, vol. 16, no. 5, article 432, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. A. Vidal, S. O. Robinson, M. J. Lopez et al., “Comparison of chondrogenic potential in equine mesenchymal stromal cells derived from adipose tissue and bone marrow,” Veterinary Surgery, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 713–724, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. A. Vandenberghe, S. Y. Broeckx, C. Beerts et al., “Tenogenically induced allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of proximal suspensory ligament desmitis in a horse,” Frontiers in Veterinary Science, vol. 2, article 49, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. A. Bertolo, F. Steffen, C. Malonzo-Marty, and J. Stoyanov, “Canine mesenchymal stem cell potential and the importance of dog breed: implication for cell-based therapies,” Cell Transplantation, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1969–1980, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. L. S. Meirelles and N. B. Nardi, “Methodology, biology and clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cells,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 4281–4298, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. D. D. Frisbie and R. K. W. Smith, “Clinical update on the use of mesenchymal stem cells in equine orthopaedics,” Equine Veterinary Journal, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 86–89, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. M. Hulanicka, M. Garncarz, M. Parzeniecka-Jaworska, and M. Jank, “The transcriptomic profile of peripheral blood nuclear cells in dogs with heart failure,” BMC Genomics, vol. 15, no. 1, article 509, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J. J. Minguell, F. M. Florenzano, M. R. Ramírez, R. F. Martínez, and G. P. Lasala, “Intracoronary infusion of a combination of bone marrow-derived stem cells in dogs,” Experimental and Clinical Cardiology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 17–20, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. H.-H. Ryu, J.-H. Lim, Y.-E. Byeon et al., “Functional recovery and neural differentiation after transplantation of allogenic adipose-derived stem cells in a canine model of acute spinal cord injury,” Journal of Veterinary Science, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 273–284, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. M. N. Knight and K. D. Hankenson, “Mesenchymal stem cells in bone regeneration,” Advances in Wound Care, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 306–316, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. S.-B. Park, M.-S. Seo, H.-S. Kim, and K.-S. Kang, “Isolation and characterization of canine amniotic membrane-derived multipotent stem cells,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 9, Article ID e44693, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. M. Horie, M. D. Driscoll, H. W. Sampson et al., “Implantation of allogenic synovial stem cells promotes meniscal regeneration in a rabbit meniscal defect model,” The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery—American Volume, vol. 94, no. 8, pp. 701–712, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. H. Y. Nam, P. Karunanithi, W. C. P. Loo et al., “The effects of staged intra-articular injection of cultured autologous mesenchymal stromal cells on the repair of damaged cartilage: a pilot study in caprine model,” Arthritis Research and Therapy, vol. 15, no. 5, article R129, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. N. Sharma and D. K. Jeong, “Stem cell research: a novel boulevard towards improved bovine mastitis management,” International Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 818–829, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. D. Kumar, T. R. Talluri, T. Anand, and W. A. Kues, “Induced pluripotent stem cells: mechanisms, achievements and perspectives in farm animals,” World Journal of Stem Cells, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 315–328, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  101. G. Puri, K. Kumar, R. Singh et al., “Effects of growth factors on establishment and propagation of embryonic stem cells from very early stage IVF embryos and their characterization in buffalo,” International Journal of Stem Cells, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 96–103, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. C. L. Keefer, “Artificial cloning of domestic animals,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 112, no. 29, pp. 8874–8878, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. H. D. Zomer, A. S. Vidane, N. N. Gonçalves, and C. E. Ambrósio, “Mesenchymal and induced pluripotent stem cells: general insights and clinical perspectives,” Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications, vol. 8, pp. 125–134, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  104. H.-T. Lin, M. Otsu, and H. Nakauchi, “Stem cell therapy: an exercise in patience and prudence,” Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London B, vol. 368, no. 1609, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus