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Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 6492953, 10 pages
Research Article

In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Niosomal Formulation for Controlled Delivery of Clarithromycin

Department of Pharmaceutics, MM College of Pharmacy, Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana 133207, India

Received 31 December 2015; Revised 5 April 2016; Accepted 13 April 2016

Academic Editor: Gaio Paradossi

Copyright © 2016 Gyati Shilakari Asthana et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The present study was focused on formulating and evaluating clarithromycin (CLR) containing niosomal formulation for in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior. Niosomal formulations (empty and drug loaded) were prepared by using different ratio of surfactant (various Span grades 20, 40, 60, and 80) and cholesterol by thin film hydration method and were evaluated for in vitro characteristics, stability studies, and in vivo study. Dicetyl phosphate (DCP) was added to the niosomal formulation. Various pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from plasma of male SD rats. Span 60 containing niosomal formulation NC2 (cholesterol to surfactant ratio 1 : 1) displayed highest entrapment efficiency with desired particle size of 4.67 μm. TEM analyses showed that niosomal formulation was spherical in shape. Niosomes containing Span 60 displayed higher percentage of drug release after 24 h as compared to other formulations. NC2 formulation was found to be stable at the end of the study on storage condition. Various pharmacokinetic parameters, namely, AUC, AUMC, and MRT of niosomal formulation, were found to be 1.5-fold, 4-fold, and 3-fold plain drug, respectively. The present study suggested that niosomal formulations provide sustained and prolonged delivery of drug with enhance bioavailability.