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Volume 2016, Article ID 6838976, 20 pages
Review Article

A Review on Recent Developments for Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Computer Science, Wah 47040, Pakistan

Received 14 December 2015; Revised 22 April 2016; Accepted 10 May 2016

Academic Editor: Gary Lopaschuk

Copyright © 2016 Javeria Amin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Diabetic retinopathy is caused by the retinal micro vasculature which may be formed as a result of diabetes mellitus. Blindness may appear as a result of unchecked and severe cases of diabetic retinopathy. Manual inspection of fundus images to check morphological changes in microaneurysms, exudates, blood vessels, hemorrhages, and macula is a very time-consuming and tedious work. It can be made easily with the help of computer-aided system and intervariability for the observer. In this paper, several techniques for detecting microaneurysms, hemorrhages, and exudates are discussed for ultimate detection of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Blood vessels detection techniques are also discussed for the diagnosis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Furthermore, the paper elaborates a discussion on the experiments accessed by authors for the detection of diabetic retinopathy. This work will be helpful for the researchers and technical persons who want to utilize the ongoing research in this area.