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Scientifica
Volume 2016, Article ID 6894758, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6894758
Research Article

Modulation of Drug Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus with Coumarin Derivatives

1Post-Graduate Program in Natural and Synthetic Bioactive Products, Federal University of Paraíba, 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB, Brazil
2Laboratory of Genetics of Microorganisms, Molecular Biology Department, Federal University of Paraíba, 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB, Brazil
3Laboratory of Synthesis and Drug Delivery, Biological Science Department, State University of Paraíba, 58071-160 João Pessoa, PB, Brazil

Received 30 December 2015; Accepted 3 April 2016

Academic Editor: Antonio Espinosa

Copyright © 2016 Rodrigo Santos Aquino de Araújo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Semisynthetic and commercial coumarins were investigated for their antibacterial and adjuvant properties with antibiotic agents against norfloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline resistant Staphylococcus aureus as based on efflux mechanisms. The coumarins and certain commercial antibiotics had their Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations determined by broth microdilution assay against resistant S. aureus strains which overexpress efflux pump proteins. For evaluation of the modulatory activity, the antibiotics MICs were determined in the presence of the coumarin derivatives at subinhibitory concentration. Although the coumarins did not display relevant antibacterial activity (MIC ≥ 128 µg/mL), they did modulate the antibiotics activities. Various coumarins, especially the alkylated derivatives in combination with antibiotics at subinhibitory concentrations, modulated antibiotic activity, reducing the MIC for tetracycline and norfloxacin by 2 to 8 times. Polar Surface Area (PSA) studies were performed and the fact that the presence of apolar groups is an important factor for the modulatory activity of coumarins was corroborated. Docking on the Penicillin-Binding Protein from MRSA identified that 18 is a potential ligand presenting low . The results indicate that coumarin derivatives modulated antibiotic resistance and may be used as potential antibiotic adjuvants, acting by bacterial efflux pump inhibition in S. aureus.