Table 1: Life expectancy at birth (in years) by area unemployment level, race/ethnicity, and sex, United States, 1990–1992 and 2006–2010.

2006–20101990–1992Difference, 1990–2010
Both sexesMalesFemalesBoth sexesMalesFemalesBoth sexesMalesFemales
LE95% CILE95% CILE95% CILE95% CILE95% CILE95% CI

Unemployment level, total US population
 <3.00%80.780.7–80.878.678.6–78.782.782.7–82.878.278.1–78.275.175.0–75.281.181.0–81.22.52.4–2.63.53.4–3.61.61.5–1.7
 3–5.99%79.0 79.0–79.076.5 76.5–76.581.4 81.4–81.476.8 76.8–76.873.473.4–73.579.979.9–80.02.2 2.2–2.23.1 3.1–3.11.5 1.5–1.5
 6–8.99%77.977.0–77.975.2 75.2–75.280.5 80.5–80.575.2 75.2–75.271.5 71.5–71.578.978.8–78.92.7 2.7–2.73.7 3.7–3.71.6 1.5–1.5
 ≥9.00%76.976.8–77.074.174.0–74.179.879.8–79.973.573.4–73.569.569.4–69.577.577.4–77.53.4 3.4–3.44.64.5–4.72.32.2–2.4
 Low−high unemployment areas13.8 3.8–3.84.54.4–4.62.92.8–3.04.74.6–4.85.65.5–5.73.63.5–3.7
Unemployment level, whites
 <3.00%80.780.6–80.778.578.5–78.682.782.6–82.778.478.3–78.475.375.2–75.481.281.2–81.32.32.2–2.43.23.1–3.31.51.4–1.6
 3–5.99%79.1 79.1–79.176.7 76.7–76.781.5 81.5–81.577.2 77.2–77.273.973.9–74.080.380.3–80.41.9 1.9–1.92.8 2.8–2.81.2 1.2–1.2
 6–8.99%78.3 78.3–78.375.8 75.8–75.880.980.8–80.976.0 76.0–76.072.472.4–72.579.579.5–79.62.3 2.3–2.33.4 3.4–3.41.4 1.4–1.4
 ≥9.00%77.877.7–77.875.175.1–75.280.480.4–80.574.874.8–74.971.171.1–71.278.678.5–78.63.02.9–3.14.03.9–4.11.81.7–1.9
 Low−high unemployment areas2.92.9–3.03.43.3–3.52.32.2–2.43.63.5–3.74.24.1–4.32.62.5–2.7
Unemployment level, blacks
 <3.00%78.678.5–78.876.276.0–76.580.780.5–82.973.573.2–73.969.769.3–70.277.276.7–77.65.14.7–5.56.56.0–7.03.53.0–4.0
 3–5.99%75.5 75.5–75.572.372.3–72.478.478.3–78.470.870.7–70.966.566.4–66.674.974.8–75.04.74.6–4.85.85.7–5.93.53.4–3.6
 6–8.99%73.8 73.8–73.870.370.2–70.377.077.0–77.169.169.1–69.264.264.2–64.373.973.9–74.04.74.6–4.86.16.0–6.23.13.0–3.2
 ≥9.00%73.973.9–74.069.969.9–70.077.577.4–77.668.568.5–68.663.263.1–63.473.673.5–73.75.45.3–5.56.76.6–6.83.93.8–4.0
 Low−high unemployment areas4.74.5–4.96.36.0–6.63.23.0–3.45.04.7–5.36.56.1–7.13.63.1–4.1
Unemployment level, American Indians, and Alaska Natives
 <3.00%85.384.5–86.083.082.0–84.187.286.2–88.2aaaaaa
 3–5.99%82.682.5–82.880.480.1–80.684.784.6–84.980.680.3–81.076.776.2–77.284.183.6–84.62.01.6–2.43.73.2–4.20.60.1–1.1
 6–8.99%81.381.2–81.578.978.7–79.183.583.3–83.780.480.2–80.776.175.7–76.484.684.2–85.00.90.6–1.22.82.4–3.2−1.1 −1.5, −0.7
 ≥9.00%76.676.4–76.873.273.0–73.580.079.7–80.272.972.6–73.268.468.0–68.877.677.2–78.03.73.4–4.04.84.3–5.32.41.9–2.9
 Low−high unemployment areas8.77.9–9.59.88.7–10.97.26.2–8.27.77.2–8.28.37.7–8.96.55.9–7.1
Unemployment level, Asians and Pacific Islanders
 <3.00%88.288.0–88.486.085.7–86.490.089.7–90.386.085.4–86.684.283.2–85.287.686.8–88.32.21.6–2.81.80.8–2.82.41.6–3.2
 3–5.99%87.187.1–87.284.984.8–84.989.089.0–89.182.482.3–82.579.679.5–79.885.385.1–85.44.74.6–4.85.35.1–5.53.73.5–3.9
 6–8.99%85.785.6–85.783.082.9–83.088.188.0–88.283.082.9–83.180.079.9–80.286.085.8–86.12.72.6–2.83.02.8–3.22.11.9–2.3
 ≥9.00%85.785.6–85.983.082.8–83.288.388.1–88.582.682.3–83.079.679.2–80.186.185.6–86.63.12.7–3.53.42.9–3.92.21.7–2.7
 Low−high unemployment areas2.52.2–2.83.02.6–3.41.71.3–2.13.42.7–4.14.63.5–5.71.50.6–2.4
Unemployment level, Hispanics
 <3.00%86.886.6–87.185.485.0–85.888.388.0–88.684.183.6–84.780.679.7–81.686.786.0–87.52.72.1–3.34.83.8–5.81.60.8–2.4
 3–5.99%83.083.0–83.180.480.4–80.585.585.4–85.582.081.9–82.178.278.1–78.485.885.6–85.91.00.9–1.12.22.0–2.4−0.3 −0.5, −0.1
 6–8.99%82.382.3–82.479.479.4–79.585.185.0–85.179.579.4–79.575.375.2–75.483.783.6–83.72.82.7–2.94.14.0–4.21.41.3–1.5
 ≥9.00%80.780.7–80.877.777.6–77.883.683.5–83.777.377.2–77.473.173.0–73.281.581.3–81.63.43.3–3.54.64.4–4.82.11.9–2.3
 Low−high unemployment areas6.15.4–6.87.77.3–8.14.74.4–5.06.86.2–7.47.56.5–8.55.24.5–5.9

Life expectancy estimates for non-Hispanic whites were similar to those for whites. LE = life expectancy. CI = confidence interval. a = insufficient data.
1Difference in life expectancy between low unemployment areas (rate < 3.00%) and high unemployment areas (rate ≥ 9.00%).
Source: based on data from the US National Vital Statistics System, 1990–2010 [20, 21].