Scientifica / 2016 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Circulating Endothelial Microparticles: A Key Hallmark of Atherosclerosis Progression

Table 2

Scientific work on microparticle in association with its link with atherosclerosis.

MicroparticlesRole in atherosclerosisReference

PMPsEnhance cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and intracellular adhesion molecules-1 (ICAM-1) release.[28]
COX-2 expression in monocytes through translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) from cytosol to the cell membrane.[29]
Enhance the adhesion of monocyte to human umbilical vein endothelial cells.[30]
Increase WBC aggregation and assembly via expression of P-selectin.[31]
Neutrophil aggregation and enhance phagocytic activity.[32]

EMPsCD-144/vascular endothelial cadherin positive.[33]
Reactive oxygen spices (ROS) formation.[34]
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activation and vascular matrix remodeling.[35, 36]
Reduce expression of p38-MAPK in human aortic endothelial cells caused reduction of TNF- induced EMPs.[37]
EMPs exhibit the TF activity in atherosclerotic plaques.[38]
Expression of E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1.[39]

MMPsInducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activation.[40]
Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) activation.[41]
Procoagulant substances responsible for endothelial dysfunction.[25]
IL-1β in MMPs can enhance the vascular inflammatory.[42]
Atherosclerotic plaque formation in the ApoE mice.[27]
Increased expression of apoptosis regulator Bax, caspase-8, caspase-3, and cytochrome C in cardiomyocytes.[43]
Induce superoxide anion production, inflammatory cytokine release, and activation of NF-B gene in monocytes.[44]

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