Scientific work on microparticle in association with its link with atherosclerosis.
Microparticles Role in atherosclerosis Reference PMPs Enhance cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and intracellular adhesion molecules-1 (ICAM-1) release. [ 28] COX-2 expression in monocytes through translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) from cytosol to the cell membrane. [ 29] Enhance the adhesion of monocyte to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. [ 30] Increase WBC aggregation and assembly via expression of P-selectin. [ 31] Neutrophil aggregation and enhance phagocytic activity. [ 32] EMPs CD-144/vascular endothelial cadherin positive. [ 33] Reactive oxygen spices (ROS) formation. [ 34] Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activation and vascular matrix remodeling. [ 35, 36] Reduce expression of p38-MAPK in human aortic endothelial cells caused reduction of TNF- induced EMPs. [ 37] EMPs exhibit the TF activity in atherosclerotic plaques. [ 38] Expression of E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. [ 39] MMPs Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activation. [ 40] Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) activation. [ 41] Procoagulant substances responsible for endothelial dysfunction. [ 25] IL-1 β in MMPs can enhance the vascular inflammatory. [ 42] Atherosclerotic plaque formation in the ApoE mice. [ 27] Increased expression of apoptosis regulator Bax, caspase-8, caspase-3, and cytochrome C in cardiomyocytes. [ 43] Induce superoxide anion production, inflammatory cytokine release, and activation of NF- B gene in monocytes. [ 44]