Table 4: Major techniques applied to develop abiotic stress-tolerant African orphan crops.

TechniqueImproved traitCropReference

Breeding & genomics
Selection/screeningSoil acidityTef[44]
Hybridization (intra- & interspecific)Drought toleranceNERICA rice[45]
Mutation breedingDiverse traitsTef[46]
Marker-assisted methodDrought tolerancePearl millet[47]
TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes)Several traitsChickpea, millets, tef[48, 49]
Agronomy & physiology
Conservation tillageDrought toleranceSorghum and chickpea[50]
Biochar applicationSoil acidity tolerance; improved soil propertiesTef & other crops[51, 52]
BBF (broad-beds & furrows)Improved drainageFaba bean and tef[53]
SCI (System of Crop Intensification)SeveralFinger millet, tef, mustard[54]
Plant hormonesSalt & cold toleranceSeveral crops[55, 56]