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Security and Communication Networks
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 1734961, 14 pages
Research Article

Separable Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images Based on Two-Dimensional Histogram Modification

1School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo 315211, China
2CKC Software Lab, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Dawen Xu

Received 29 September 2017; Revised 30 November 2017; Accepted 21 December 2017; Published 7 February 2018

Academic Editor: Xinpeng Zhang

Copyright © 2018 Dawen Xu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


An efficient method of completely separable reversible data hiding in encrypted images is proposed. The cover image is first partitioned into nonoverlapping blocks and specific encryption is applied to obtain the encrypted image. Then, image difference in the encrypted domain can be calculated based on the homomorphic property of the cryptosystem. The data hider, who does not know the original image content, may reversibly embed secret data into image difference based on two-dimensional difference histogram modification. Data extraction is completely separable from image decryption; that is, data extraction can be done either in the encrypted domain or in the decrypted domain, so that it can be applied to different application scenarios. In addition, data extraction and image recovery are free of any error. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme.