Table 3: Cross-layer moving target defense transformation mechanism.

NameMechanism CharacteristicsRelated Technologies
RedundantHeterogeneousRandomTimelinessDeception

NMCOperating environment randomization, forwarding path transformation, network intrusion detection, virtual machine isolation

APODEnd information transformation, network intrusion detection, container separation

A3Container-based isolation, backup, software randomization

TALENTInstruction randomization, security state awareness

SDNAIPv6, IP address mutation, authentication, honeypot