Deep Learning for Intrusion Detection and Security of Internet of Things (IoT): Current Analysis, Challenges, and Possible Solutions
In the last decade, huge growth is recorded globally in computer networks and Internet of Things (IoT) networks due to the exponential data generation, approximately zettabyte to a petabyte. Consequently, security issues have also been arisen with the network growth. However, intrusion detection in such big data is challenging. Smart homes, cities, grids, devices, objects, e-commerce, e-banking, e-government, etc., are different advanced applications of the evolving networks. Many Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) have been developed recently due to most computer networks’ exposure to security and privacy threats. Data confidentiality, integrity, and availability damage will occur in case of IDS prevention failure. Conventional techniques are not effective enough to cope the advanced attacks. Advanced deep learning techniques have been proposed for automatic intrusion detection and abnormal behavior identification of networks. This research aims to provide an inclusive analysis of intrusion detection based on deep learning techniques followed by different intrusion detection systems. In this review, public network-based datasets of IDS are fully explored and analyzed. Deep learning techniques for IDS have been critically evaluated based on different performance metrics (accuracy, precision, recall, f-1 score, false alarm rate, and detection rate). Furthermore, existing challenges and possible solutions for networks security and privacy have been discussed.
Researchers are persistent about quality of service and high security in large-scale networks. The interconnection of networks and their applications extended to more complex networks day by day for exchanging critical information. Only 50 billion IoT device networks were expected globally until the end of 2020, and an estimated $3.9–$11.1 trillion per annum economic impact rate. Many applications such as smart homes, cities, healthcare, and more enhance life excellence and the pervasive interconnection of networks with other networks and devices for communication. Figure 1 shows IoT network architecture based on network layers. Some devices use sensors to automatically collect real-time data shared across the networks for evaluation purposes [1, 2].
For most enterprises, cyber-attacks are a significant concern. Governments and enterprises are working hard to prevent the theft of sensitive information. Several technologies such as IDS, firewalls, and traffic shaping devices are available to secure a network. In addition, numerous attack modelling approaches are available to help organizations understand the nature of an assault [3–5]. One of the top concerns for businesses is to protect their networks from the external attacks. Strong authentication, access control, and monitoring systems are often successful in detecting, mitigating, and stopping cyber-attacks. Furthermore, IDS can identify the majority of assaults at the Perception, Transport, and Network layers.
A serious security issue to the intrusion detection systems is to face the malicious software variations that lead to network security breaches and serious faults. Cyber-attacks are more complicated and challengeable in unknown malware attack identification due to the evolution of advanced evasion methods to steal critical information and evade IDS from detection [6–8]. In addition, there are cybersecurity threats during internetworks communication. Therefore, novel techniques and solutions are essential for attack prevention and timely intrusion detection techniques. Machine learning and deep learning techniques have recently been developed and applied for intrusion detection and identification of abnormal behaviors in networks and their prevention [9–11].
IDS provides the solution for different security-related issues with different types of malicious or intruders attacks in networks [12, 13]. In this research, the different intrusion detection systems are discussed. In addition, deep learning-based techniques for intrusion detection have been described comprehensively.
The following are the major contributions of this research.(i)The main intrusion detection systems are elaborated and analyzed.(ii)Network-based datasets for IDS evaluation are elaborated.(iii)IDS-based deep learning methods are evaluated on benchmark datasets.(iv)Finally, the study highlights existing network security challenges and possible solutions.
Further, in Section 2, related work is presented. Section 3 described intrusion detection systems and their types. Deep learning-based techniques developed for IDS have been demonstrated in Section 4. Section 5 discussed different publicly available datasets comprehensively. State of the art DL-based techniques for IDS have been critically reviewed based on accuracy, precision, recall, FAR, and f1 score in Section 6. Finally, the research is concluded along with future challenges and their possible solutions in Section 7.
2. Related Work
Numerous techniques and algorithms for intrusion detection are reported in the literature using machine and deep learning. Hence, this section explores existing techniques and solutions based on deep learning techniques [14, 15].
Auto-IF (Autoencoder and Isolation Forest) technique was developed for anomaly detection in Fog network. Using binary classification, the method classifies the inbound traffic as normal packets or malicious attacks simultaneously. The dataset imbalance problem is avoided by taking normal traffic data using Autoencoder (AE) and removing the training attacks. Isolation forest uses the AE output as input for datapoint misfit identification to enhance the performance. The result shows that this technique achieves best performance of 95.4% accuracy, 94.81% precision, 97.25% recall, and 96.01% F-measure, respectively, by evaluating the NSL-KDD dataset . WFEU-FFDNN (Feed-Forward Deep Neural Network and Wrapper Based Feature Extraction Unit) techniques were implemented. The best compact feature vector was produced using WFEU extra trees algorithms. The proposed IDS system’s performance was evaluated on two datasets, UNSW-NB15 and AWID (Aegean WiFi Intrusion Dataset). 22 and 26 attributes feature vector is formed through WFEU in the UNSW-NB15 and AWID datasets. The results demonstrate that the technique achieves accuracy of 87.10% and 77.16% for binary and multi-class classification for UNSW-NB15 and accuracy of 99.66% and 99.77% for the binary and the multi-class classification for AWID dataset. The proposed technique was compared with ML techniques such as SVM, KNN, RF, DT, and NB. The research based on AWID presents that it is appropriate for wired as well as wireless network applications. The proposed system slows down due to complex computations and time consumption throughout the experimental procedure. This research explores UNSW-NB15 and AWID dataset distinct classes detection rate and their performance influence when the proposed technique is applied. The limitations could be considered using powerful hardware [16, 17]. Automated IDS using Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) with multi-layers was proposed for fog network security and evaluated by a stable NSL-KDD dataset. The technique consists of two main phases: traffic analysis and classification. The traffic analysis section preprocesses the data for DNN (deep neural network) processing.
In contrast, the preprocess data are classified as a normal or malicious attack in classification phase. Deep proportional recursive network and backpropagation algorithm variation were implemented to develop appropriate IDS for training. This technique analyzes traffic, yields robust and consistent real-time security in an IoT environment. When a malicious attack is detected, it warns through a security alarm. The technique’s analysis reported high sensitivity to DoS attacks and detection rate of DoS 98.27% Probe 97.35% R2L 64.93% U2R 77.25% in real-time networks .
An IDS technique-based GBDT (Gradient Boosting Decision Tree) paralleled quadratic ensemble learning was developed to use traffic spatial part data. The GRU (Gated Recurrent Unit) variant method is used for temporal data. The GBDT and GRU techniques extracted features (spatial and temporal) are concatenated as the final IDS model. CAS2018 dataset was created in the lab for experimental analysis. This technique is evaluated on CICIDS2017 dataset that resulted in better accuracy of 99.9%, 99.9%, 99.9%, 99.9%, and 99.9%, respectively, for detecting benign, DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service), port scan, infiltration, and web attack traffic . Furthermore, an FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation) algorithm was developed to enhance the CNN efficacy in network traffic intrusion detection due to CNN models’ immaturity. FFT converts each network communication into images for classification [19, 20].
The data comprised of characters. The numbers are used instead of characters to make sequences for FFT to sample 4096 points. Real, imaginary parts and their summation as three channels of an image generate an image of 64 ∗ 64. The result shows the effectiveness in binary and multi-classification in data conversion. The experiments were performed on NSL-KDD dataset. This technique is limited in u2r and r2l detection due to low data present in the dataset. The research aimed to explore imbalanced samples of datasets and real-time network communications image conversion techniques [21, 22]. A new feature extraction technique was proposed for IDS to overcome dimensionality reduction and comprehensible risk indicators identification or extraction. This technique comprises first fuzzy class memberships created from raw data in a fuzzy allocation section followed by a feature Vec2im (vectors to images) conversion section. Siamese CNN is used to reduce dimensions 1-d feature space. NSL-KDD dataset was evaluated for experimental analysis, which resulted in the inaccuracy of 86.64%. This research aimed to exploit transform images as visual analytics systems in present IDS and could be used to evaluate complex data like healthcare [11, 23, 24].
3. Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
IDS are the systems that automatically detect and analyze the abnormal and intimidating behavior within a host or network to monitor security and protection. Simply intrusion detection detects the invasion. Sometimes, it identifies the instructions for evidence in some situations. Intrusion is the eccentricity of the network or computer from normal conduct and means a threat used to attack for stealing or damage the network data [25–27]. Currently, people use the Internet and other networks to share and store confidential data.  presents that IDS is an application of cybersecurity used by a firewall and antivirus software.
Moreover, the firewall limitedly analyzes the online traffic. Though IDSs can control, monitor, and maintain all networks flow even when irregular behavior or threats attacks happen within the networks, it causes an alert for network administrators. Figure 2 shows network communication flow along with intrusion detection systems across the networks [28, 29].
IDSs mainly comprise three segments. First, cyberattack evidence data is collected from input data and then processed to analyze and detect the second segment’s cyber-attacks. Finally, in the third segment, the attacks are reported. Machine and deep learning-based techniques were recently utilized to predict normal and abnormal behaviors and new unidentified attacks within the networks through input data analysis. The IDSs techniques could be classified into various types, for example, signature-based intrusion detection systems (SIDS), anomaly-based intrusion detection systems (AIDS), specification-Based Detection, hybrid-based detection, host-based IDS (HIDS), network-based IDS (NIDS), and distributed-based IDS (DIDS) [30, 31].
3.1. Signature-Based Intrusion Detection Systems (SIDS)
SIDS is also called knowledge-based detection. It analyzes and evaluates networks based on renowned patterns or corresponding signatures for finding attack signatures in the signature databases by comparing network communication and activities. It stores the behavior and signature of each attack within a network [32, 33]. An alert is produced when the attack signature is found or matched with the stored signature database. It means that SIDS only detects the attacks whose signature is stored in a database. New attacks are detected using SIDS, while it is not as accurate in the contradiction of attack variations. The alert system minimizes false alerts due to effective and accurate misbehavior identification and classification to assess network administrators’ taking defensive actions. Still, activities that are not matched with the database are considered unknown irregularities, normal or attack variations. Therefore, SIDS needs persistent knowledge database update for new attack variations. SIDS conventional techniques only analyze packets by comparing with patterns in the database. It does not recognize new attack variations. AIDS (Anomaly-based intrusion detection system) techniques for this issue are possible because it works on profiling the appropriate behavior of attacks [34–36].
AIS (Artificial Immune System) method is used to tackle the SIDS limitation. This technique uses the immune cells model, which works based on attacks pattern or signatures and evaluates these by classification into normal or abnormal. It also detects new signatures by constant system monitoring. Furthermore, Suricata signature IDS based on Linux is employed to resolve the resource constraints problem.
3.2. An Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection System (AIDS)
AIDS, also known as profile-based or dynamic behavior anomaly detection, is the most extensively used model compared to SIDS due to its effectiveness against new attacks. AIDS is commonly used to overcome the limitations of SIDS. Unidentified attacks detection at different stages causes alerts to recognize the exposures and prevent them with possible techniques. AIDS monitors the system consistently to collect data for detection and recognition of normal or abnormal. Zero-day attack recognition is the core purpose of AIDS because new anomalous actions are concerned with pattern databases [37, 38]. It can learn abnormal behavior within the networks. For example, if any unauthorized activity occurs or if there is stealing from an account, the alarm is generated. Abnormality behavior is new usual actions, not unaffected intrusions, resulting in a high false-positive rate [39, 40].
Several methods are recently developed and presented in the literature for detecting and classifying abnormal behaviors. It has been studied for the last two decades, but challenges still could not be resolved .
3.3. Customized Intrusion Detection Methods
Customized and AIDS work similar, while this technique provides and develops specifications and rules manually to describe normal network activities. The network is monitored according to the proposed set of rules and instructions. It has a minimum false positive rate due to resistance to new attack variations. The customized IDS has limitations due to complexities and restrictions in development, time consumption, and cost .
3.4. Hybrid Intrusion Detection Methods
These methods, also known as compound detection, have been developed by combining anomaly, misuse, and specification detection techniques to overcome the deficiencies and enhance the detection of existing and new attack behavior. For example, SVELTE IDS technique was developed using the hybrid technique (SIDS and AIDS) for 6LoWPAN networks in IoT connected through IP. This hybrid technique was developed to accomplish the stability of these techniques’ storage, processing, cost, and complexity.
DSNSF (digital signature of network segment using flow analysis) developed for new and unidentified attacks within networks communication and revealed misbehavior signatures were classified as port scan, flash crowd, Dos, or DDoS attack .
3.5. Host-Based IDS (HIDS)
The HIDS is software installed on the network’s host computer that examines, analyzes, gathers, and monitors the data actions consistently within the network and host network by inspecting firewall, server, or database logs. HIDS is limited to detecting a single host’s abnormal attacks while detecting uninvolved attacks within the network .
3.6. Network-Based IDS (NIDS)
NIDS monitors network communications by gathering packets capture and others through NetFlow. Its basic purpose is to secure the networks from the exterior attacks causing an alert/alarm when a malicious attack happens. This IDS works with multiple hosts across the networks and external firewalls by monitoring and analyzing network communications using software or hardware. Software is installed on servers for monitoring, while sensors are attached to servers to analyze the network’s communications. As a result, NIDS is very effective and secured in detecting malicious attacks.
NIDS has several limitations; it cannot process and analyze the huge network data due to high bandwidth and speed traffic flow. NIDS is also incapable of encrypted network packets .
3.7. Distributed IDS (DIDS)
DIDS comprises several different IDS on a broad network to analyze communication monitoring management, malicious attack information, and incident. Information combines using multiple sensors (NIDS and HIDS based) and a central analyzer to manage intrusion detection and prevention .
4. Deep Learning (DL) Techniques for IDSs
Deep learning techniques are better in the case of large datasets than Machine learning-based techniques. Deep learning techniques have grown into the most applicable and widely used intrusion detection system in networks. Deep learning, a type of machine learning, is frequently used in cybersecurity because it can discover previously undiscovered patterns in raw data. It finds higher-level characteristics via many layers of modifications [43, 44]. Deep learning addresses all pattern recognition challenges on massive databases. It automatically employs many hidden layers to select the best features for pattern recognition. Deep learning entails the simultaneous selection of features and training, whereas traditional machine learning requires feature extraction first, followed by training and testing. Deep learning has several subtypes [45, 46]. The topology of a feed-forward neural network is the basis for deep learning models. Typically, deep learning comprises an input layer, a hidden layer/layers, and an output layer. Features are inferred via layers dubbed hidden layers. The input layer is fed a property vector representing the item to be categorized as an input. The output layer generates the class vector for the input vector. Deep learning lowers the cost function and executes the learning process by altering the weight values using a backpropagation technique. First, the system gives an input vector and weights, and the error rate is calculated by comparing the output to the desired output [47, 48].
Following that, the error rate is reduced by back-propagating the weights. Moreover, deep learning techniques accomplished complicated features through automatic models’ execution. DL is elevated from Artificial Intelligence that can learn unlabeled and labeled data in the supervised and unsupervised way. Numerous DL techniques have been developed for recognition and classification [49, 50]. However, this research work describes DL techniques for intrusion detection. Several deep learning techniques such as Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Deep Autoencoders (AEs), Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM), Deep Belief Network (DBN), Generative Adversarial Network (GAN), Ensemble of DL Networks (EDLNs), and more [51, 52]are described. Figure 3 demonstrates the general structure of IDS based on deep learning.
Deep learning-based IDSs require a dataset for the evaluation of intrusions. Appropriate data construction for training the model is significant and complex due to labeled normal and abnormal communication and other features like IP address [53, 54]. In addition, some network packet-based analysis datasets are not reported publicly due to security issues. However, broadly used publicly available datasets are described in this section. Table 1 shows the different types of attacks and total numbers of records for each dataset. Figure 4 describes the different IDS and attack types.
DARPA (Defence Advanced Research Project Agency) dataset was developed in 1998. It contains audit logs and network traffic of seven weeks of training and two weeks of test data of network-based attacks. However, the drawback of DARPA dataset is not to signify the real-world network traffic .
KDD CUP (Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining) dataset is originated from DARPA dataset that reported around 5 million suspecious activity evaluation within seven weeks of network traffic. This dataset is the updated variation of IDSs evaluation to distinguish the normal and malicious attack networks led by Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). It comprises 41 basic, traffic and content features classes. The attacks are also characterized based on R2L (Remote to Local attack), U2R (User to Root attack), DoS (Denial of Service attack), and Probing attack. It has been a broadly used dataset for the last two decades to evaluate IDSs techniques and most effective inaccuracy. This dataset’s limitations include oldness, no stability in training and test data, maximum twisted targets, inappropriate features, and redundant patterns . NSL-KDD datasets was developed to resolve the limitations of the KDD dataset. This dataset was enhanced and more stable than KDD, with no redundancy. Records are accurate, arranged in percentage form and rational. However, this dataset is still limited due to no detection of low footprint attacks .
DEFCON Dataset has two versions DEFCON-8, proposed in 2000 and DEFCON-10 in 2002. The DEFCON-8 version includes port scanning and buffers overflow-based attacks, while another version comprises of FTP protocol attacks, bad packet, ports scan, and sweeps attacks. This dataset is limited because real-time and normal traffic differs during CTF (Capture the Flag) competition, which causes the IDS evaluation. CAIDAs (Center of Applied Internet Data Analysis) dataset developed by Center of Applied Internet Data Analysis covers three different datasets, CAIDA Internet traces 2016, CAIDA DDOS, and RSDoS Attack Metadata (2018-09). Explicitly it is monitored on the fast Internet network CAIDA’s Equinix-Chicago traced passive traffic. 5-minute pcap files division was obtained from traffic of a one-hour DDoS attack. UCSD Network Telescope gathered backscatter packets of incidental spoofed DoS attacks. This dataset is inaccurate due to several disadvantages, attack variations, ground truth inaccessibility, and the lack of features collection from network cause normal and malicious communication classification difficult . CIDS 2017 dataset was developed in 2017, including normal and malicious attacks like Brute Force SSH, Brute Force FTP, DoS, DDoS, Web Attack, Heartbleed, and more. Eighty features are collected from network traffic through the CIC Flow Meter tool and 25 users’ intangible actions were extracted based on FTP, HTTP protocols. The features are labeled on the source and destination IPs, timestamp, source and destination ports, and attacks and protocols .
ISCX IDS dataset was proposed by the Information Security Center of Excellence in 2012 to implement and analyze network intrusion and attacks detection strategies implementation and analysis. It contains one-week network analysis for normal and abnormal behavior (Inside attacks, DoS, DDoS, and Brute Force SSH) of HTTP, FTP, SMTP, IMAP, SSH, and POP3 protocols. Datasets include 17 properties and labeled as approximately 1512000 packets with 19 features. LBNL (Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory) developed a dataset through uPMU by collecting two routers’ traffic flow inside, outside the network. 120 Hz, 12 streams were generated using micro-phasor measurement units. This dataset comprised 79,000 flows without having abnormal behavior. Traffic flow is not categorized as normal or abnormal, and the labels only present communication through application protocols . Novel Bot-IoT dataset is proposed for IoT networks in Cyber Range Lab, center of UNSW Canberra Cyber. It consists of DoS, DDoS, OS, Service Scan, Data exfiltration, and Keylogging attacks in more than 72.0 0 0.0 0 0 records. It also includes combined normal and botnet traffic. A lightweight MQTT network protocol is used for M2M communication and Node-red tool used for network activities simulation . Table 2 provides open access links of benchmark datasets.
With the rise of applications and users on networks, security is a major concern for the network systems. Physical layer problems include physical damage, device failure, and power constraints. Network layer issues include denial of service assaults, sniffer, gateway attacks, and illegal access. Numerous IoT devices rely on self-security systems and so are vulnerable to different attacks. The authentication issue and physical threats are the initial obstacles that an IoT system must overcome. Confidentiality concerns exist between IoT devices and the network layer gateways. Next category of security problems is concerned with the integrity of data sent between services and applications. Data integrity issues arise when a network system is compromised by spoofing attacks or noise. DoS, DDoS, and probing assaults are examples of arbitrary attacks that may compromise IoT systems and services. The fourth category of issues is concerned with privacy. Privacy of data is a critical component of security in IoT systems. Different IoT components employ various item identification methods; as a result, each thing has its unique identification tag that contains personal, location, and movement data [59, 60].
This section critically evaluates deep learning techniques for intrusion detection and prevention in existing systems and networks based on performance measures such as accuracy, precision, recall, f measure, FAR, classification, and misclassification rate.
A novel IDS based on DNN (deep neural network) was implemented to overcome the challenges of modern complicated security-related networks and advancement in attacks. The proposed technique is designed to resolve the issue of overfitting. IDS manages the communication of normal and abnormal behavior within the networks. The KDD99 dataset had been preprocessed and normalized through mean and standard deviation. ReLU (Rectified Linear Unit) and softmax are applied as the activation function for hidden layers and the last layer due to the complex classification process. Stochastic technique Adam optimizer is applied as backpropagation and loss function was calculated. Softmax was evaluated as a classifier to distinguish normal and abnormal attacks amongst multiple classes. The experimental analysis reported accuracy and loss function of 99.91% and 0.005%, respectively, in numerical data type. While accuracy and loss function of 99.78% and 0.015%, respectively, were reported for mix data type. This research explored the proposed technique using feature extraction methods for efficiency and consistency enhancement . Deep image learning based on DCNN was proposed for anomaly detection, classification, and characterization. This research work is categorized in feature selection and model layers. 80 Features are extracted through CICFlowMeter by computing CICIDS2017 and CSECIC-IDS2018 datasets. Best features are selected for generating 2D gray images after forest tree computation, followed by ranking features used as CNN input. A vector of 9 × 9 was produced in the model layers section.
A novel technique TSDL (two-stage deep learning) was developed due to new attack variations prevention. The method used for NIDS is through stacked autoencoder and a softmax classifier. There are two mechanisms. First, the probability score value is used for classifying the records as normal or abnormal, followed by using it in the second step for normal and other attack classes detection as an additional feature. This technique effectively learns efficient representation of features from large-scale unlabeled records. The experimental analysis reported a better efficacy and recognition rate by evaluating two open-source datasets, UNSW-NB15 and KDD99. The accuracy in KDD99 and UNSW-NB15 datasets was shown 99.996% and 89.134%. The critical analysis based on the KDD99 dataset in terms of normal and abnormal classes presents 87785 records classified as normal while 53 records were misclassified. 57701 records were classified as abnormal, while 47 records were misclassified. Overall, 145,486 out of 145,586 records were classified. Other performance matrices, e.g., precision, recall, F-measure, and FAR (False Alarm Rate) for two classes, 99.93%, 99.93%, 99.93%, and 0.0007% were reported. In the case of multi-class attacks (normal, DoS, U2R, Probe, and R2L) analysis of the KDD99 dataset, 145,580 records out of 145,586 were accurately classified. Other performance matrices include precision, recall, F-measure, and FAR (False Alarm Rate) for multi-classes, 99.99%, 99.99%, 99.99%, and 0.0000001% were reported.
The critical analysis based on the UNSW-NB15 dataset regarding normal and abnormal classes presented those 108540 records were classified as normal while 15874 records were misclassified. 103467 records were classified as abnormal while 8442 records were misclassified. Overall, 212,007 out of 236,323 records were classified. Other performance matrices include precision, recall, F-measure, and FAR (False Alarm Rate) for two classes, 89.74%, 89.59%, 89.79%, and 0.1015 d. In case of multi-class attacks, (Anal., Back., DoS, Exp., Fuzz., Gene., Norm., Reco., Shell, and Worm.), analysis of UNSW-NB15 dataset 210,643 records out of 236,323 records were classified. Performance matrices such as precision, recall, F-measure, and FAR (False Alarm Rate) for multi-classes, 89.130%, 63.270%, 90.85%, and 0.00750% were reported. The research aimed to design and explore DL multitasking and reinforcement learning techniques to enhance the developed NIDS . An autonomous and smart IDS was implemented for dynamic security of networks to be capable of zero-day attack detection. The proposed technique was designed to decrease the manual work. It is comprised of different techniques: GRU (gated recurrent unit), CNN (convolutional neural network), and RF (random forest). Snort and Bro IDS tools store and analyze solo connection network packets followed by extracting features. The features were classified as normal or malicious by applying multiple classifiers including RNN, GRU, CNN, and RF and concatenating their votes and logic. The results display their method could detect new malicious attacks through automatic learning. However, in case of attack misclassification, automatic learning will manage it in the future. The experiments are conducted on the NSL-KDD dataset, 87.28% and 76.61% accuracy claimed for KDDTest+ and KDDTest-. This research achieved better performance and enhanced to overcome training time and accuracy, but it is still limited to real-time networks and attack types detection [22, 33].
A new technique based on deep learning was proposed for error rate reduction during the training procedure. The proposed technique was designed in two major stages: first in preprocessing step, the unwanted data or redundant data were reduced through the Threshold-based ranking technique to achieve better efficacy. CNN model was evaluated along with different gradient optimization approaches such as Adaptive Moment Estimation (Adam), Adaptive Gradient Moment (Adagrad), Root Mean Squared Propagation (RMSProp), and Adaptive Delta Moment (Adadelta), for error minimization. NSL-KDD dataset evaluated for experimental purpose. The comprehensive analysis reported 99.68%, 98.56%, 93.81%, and 91.93%, for Adam, RMSProp, Adadelta, and Adagrad. While overall recall of 92.48%, 90.08%, 89.17% and 83.20% was reported, respectively, for Adam, RMSProp, Adadelta, and Adagrad. Overall f1-score of 95.94%, 93.87%, 89.27%, and 87.27 was reported, respectively, for same algorithms. The results show that the Adam approach is better in performance than other optimization approaches. This research investigates intrusion identification using AI techniques to learn advanced attacks and their prevention [34, 35].
DNN model-based IDS was implemented for big data in large-scale networks security. The big network datasets evaluation is still challenging. The proposed technique uses two stages: first, the imbalance data of the CICIDS2017 dataset was analyzed by extracting and selecting the best features, then eliminating redundant records, normalizing, stabilizing, and label encoding of data. Because the dataset comprised of 79 labeled and imbalanced attributes and classes of real-world data, DNN model was employed for classification in the second stage. The dataset was categorized into different attacks, for example, DoS, DDoS, Web, Infiltration, Botnet, Heartbleed, and Brute force. The dataset was modified for experiments to evaluate the model as flow and packet-based. The experiments exhibited that the model achieved a better recognition rate and loss of 99.13%, 0.0232 and 99.29%, 0.0289, respectively, for binary and multi-classification. ROC (Receiver operating characteristics) score reported as 100%. This research is limited due to minimum data for several attacks such as Web, Infiltration, and Heartbleed. That is why the technique could not classify it. The study aimed for low records issue detection . SRU-DCGAN (simple recurrent unit and deep convolutional generative adversarial networks) model was implemented to resolve big complicated data in large- and high-scale networks for accurate processing and to reduce irregularities of high false positive and negative rates NIDS. This technique uses the raw data for feature extraction to produce new training data. LSTM (long short-term memory) is applied for automatic feature learning of network intrusion activities. Due to the LSTM limitation, the SRU is implemented for dependency elimination and real-time intrusion permitting. The Mahalanobis distance approach was applied to map the data into the 2D vector in the preprocessing stage. The output is used as input for the DL network. KDD99 and NSL-KDD datasets were used for experimental analysis, resulting in 99.73% and 99.62% accuracy. CICIDS2017 was also evaluated for intrusion detection of each attack type. The comparison reported that in the KDD99 and NSL-KDD datasets, the ML techniques achieve up to 94% and 83% of accuracy .
7. Conclusion, Challenges, and Possible Solutions
Intrusion detection systems are improved along with the emergence of large-scale, high-dimension IoT and computer networks. The network applications are grown and easily accessible. Therefore, it faces many data security, privacy, confidentiality, and reliability challenges. Numerous intrusion detection systems are discussed and analyzed in this research. Additionally, deep learning-based IDS for network challenges have been comprehensively analyzed. The detailed study on IDS methodologies, types (SIDS, AIDS, NID, HIDS, DIDS, and more) and technologies with their advantages, limitations, and network-based public datasets are analyzed in depth. Deep learning techniques for intrusion detection and prevention evaluation in state of the art and networks environments are also evaluated on different performance measures such as accuracy, precision, recall, f measure, FAR, classification, and misclassification rate.
Future challenges and possible solutions are described as follows:(i)Parallel processing of amalgamed distributed data gathering was supposed for intrusion detection contributes better performance for the challenges in research studies of real-time detection, big data processing frameworks, and high-data throughput rates.(ii)The challenges in the technical model are features, labels, and instances based. Noisy data, redundant and weakly correlated data are feature-based challenges. Too few labeled data and imbalanced data are labels’ challenges, while big data, dynamic and small data are the challenges of instances. Solutions are also provided. Some are implemented for these challenges: feature normalization and density-based clustering, redundancy elimination methods, feature selection, autoencoder, and dimensionality for noisy, redundant, and weakly correlated data. Adversarial sample generation, transfer learning, oversampling and under-sampling, genetic programming, optimal feature extraction, Siamese neural network, and feature fusion are solutions to too few labeled data and imbalanced data challenges. Incremental, meta, transfer and reinforcement learning, parallelism and multithreading cloud computing, data reduction, stream data techniques are solutions to big, dynamic, and small data challenges.(iii)In anomaly detection, normality, adaptability, dynamic profile update, noisy data, false alarm rates, and complexity are the main challenges of creating a precise idea of normality. Intrusions are consistently changing or updating with time; therefore, IDS needs to update continuously. In addition, false alarm rate needs to be eliminated or minimized, but it is still a challenge to avoid it.
Data security, infrastructure, and real-time update issue, computational restriction, and algorithms exploitation and privacy leakage challenge IoT-based networks. Data augmentation techniques were supposed to create more accurate and reliable datasets for training the ML and DL models. Robust software infrastructure must be developed for IoT network security. Security measures must be included at every level of the IoT system, from hardware to software, to provide a secure environment. IoT devices must be able to deal with massive data volumes with few resources.
Additionally, when machine learning algorithms are integrated into an IoT system, they increase the system’s computational complexity. As a result, systems are slowed down. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce complexity via artificial intelligence algorithms. Actually, common users have no idea what, how, or where their personal information has been shared. All IoT devices adhere to fundamental security procedures, including authentication, encryption, and security upgrades. As a result, IoT devices must encrypt messages before sending them via the cloud to ensure their confidentiality. However, privacy protection must be a primary issue when designing IoT devices. As further work, this study will be extended to provide comprehensive security, privacy, and cyber-attacks frameworks in IoT-based innovative environments since much enhancements are still required.
The dataset employed in this review article will be provided from the author on reasonable request.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declared no conflicts of interest for this research.
This research was technically supported by Artificial Intelligence and Data Analytics Lab (AIDA) CCIS Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
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