Sleep Quality and Its Correlates among Adolescents of Western Nepal: A Population-Based StudyRead the full article
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Prevalence of Insomnia among Pancreatic Cancer Patients following Pancreaticoduodenectomy
Introduction. Sleep disturbances are more common in cancer patients than in the general population; however, there is limited research pertaining to the occurrence of such disturbances that subsequently impact patients’ quality of life. The aim of our study is to describe the prevalence of insomnia among pancreatic cancer patients who have recently undergone recent pancreaticoduodenectomy. Methods. We performed a 6-year (2014-2020) retrospective cohort analysis of all adult patients aged 18 and above with pancreatic cancer who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy at our institution. Insomnia was characterized using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Symptoms of insomnia and the impact caused by these symptoms on daily lives were assessed with the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and patients were divided into mild insomnia (ISI 8–14) or moderate to severe insomnia (). Results. Out of forty patients with pancreatic cancer that have undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy, 19 (47.2%) reported that their sleep disturbances had a significant effect on their quality of life. A total of 22 (55.0%) patients reported insomnia, with 63.2% reporting mild insomnia. Chemotherapy was found to significantly increase the risk of moderate to severe insomnia. The mean ISI score was , and the mean PSQI score was . ISI and PSQI showed a strong positive correlation (, ). Conclusion. Sleep disturbances such as insomnia following pancreatic cancer surgery are highly prevalent. Treating physicians and surgeons should recognize and routinely screen for sleep disorders through the management of a multidisciplinary team in order to alleviate some of the burden on the patients’ mental well-being.
The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: Reliability, Factor Structure, and Related Clinical Factors among Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Chronic Pain
This study is aimed at assessing the psychometric properties and the factorial structure of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in a clinical sample of children, adolescents, and young adults with chronic pain. Data of 482 participants (aged 8-21 years) from two crosssectional studies and a chronic pain services outpatient clinic were analyzed. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis of PSQI component scores were performed. Relationships between the PSQI global score and various clinical measures were investigated to assess external validity. The findings exhibit the reliability and validity of a single-factor model of the PSQI in a clinical sample of youth with chronic pain and support the relationship in this specific population between poor sleep quality and important clinical measures of well-being. These results support an informed decision regarding its use with this specific population and underscore the clinical relevance of assessing sleep quality.
Use of Laser in Sleep Disorders: A Review on Low Laser Uvulopalatoplasty
Study Objective. The objective of this study is to find the effectiveness of the low laser therapy on uvulopalatoplasty/soft palate in sleep apnea patients and snoring. Also, this study aims to touch base on the effectiveness of the Er:YAG and combined use of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers for the uvulopalatoplasty. Methods. A comprehensive and systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Web of Science, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry, WHO Library, and Medline. The search strategies were developed to cover publications from January 2010 through March 2020. The past 10 years of the search were performed to report the data following systematic review and meta-analysis protocol (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Results. With the help of keywords, the total number of abstracts identified was 946. These abstracts were further reviewed as per inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 106 abstracts were identified to match the selection criteria. Further review of full articles resulted in 12 articles that matched the inclusion criteria for the study. Conclusion. Er:YAG can be a good alternative and least invasive therapy for managing snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. Er:YAG therapy is considered to nonsurgical intervention with minimum side effects and can be performed chairside.
Magnitude of Poor Sleep Hygiene Practice and Associated Factors among Medical Students in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Good sleep hygiene plays an important role in human health. Medical students are notorious for insufficient and irregular sleep habits which are linked with students’ learning abilities, poor academic performance, and poor interpersonal relationship which predispose them to mental illnesses. However, it has not been studied among medical students in Ethiopia. Method. This institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 576 undergraduate medical students selected by using a stratified sampling technique. Sleep hygiene (SHI) was assessed by a 13-item sleep hygiene questionnaire. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the potential determinants of poor sleep hygiene among undergraduate medical students. Variables with values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant, and the strength of the association was presented by adjusted odds ratio with 95% C.I. Result. The prevalence of poor sleep hygiene practice among undergraduate medical students was 48.1% (95% 43.7, 52.1). After adjusting for the possible confounders, being female (, 95% CI 1.03, 2.26), having depressive symptoms (, 95% CI 2.26, 5.59), with stress symptoms (, 95% CI 1.61, 3.60), and having anxiety symptoms (, 95% CI 1.42, 3.31) were associated with poor sleep hygiene practice at value < 0.05. Conclusion. Almost half of the medical students had poor sleep hygiene practice. Routine screening of depressive and stress symptoms and education about sleep hygiene are warranted among medical students.
Quality of Sleep and Its Correlates among Yemeni Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Sleep disturbance is particularly common among medical students worldwide and affects their wellbeing and academic performance. However, little is known about this issue in Yemen. This study looks at sleep quality and its association with personal and life-style factors and self-reported academic performance among medical students at the largest Yemeni university. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at Sana’a University, Yemen, in 2017. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), consisting of 19 items and 7 components (), was used to assess sleep quality. The summation of the components’ scores yields the global PSQI score (). A global PSQI value higher than 5 indicates poor quality of sleep. Logistic regression was applied to look at relationships. Results. 240 male (41%) and female (59%) medical students took part in the study with 54% being preclinical and 46% clinical with an average age of 23.3 years (). The mean global score (SD) was 6.85 (2.8), and 68% of the students () were identified as poor sleepers. The mean global PSQI score (SD) and proportion of poor sleepers were higher among males (7.7 (2.8) and 81%, respectively) than females (6.27 (2.42) and 59.2%, respectively), . Good sleep quality was more likely (OR (95% CI)) among females (3.4 (1.3-8.8)), the unmarried (2.8 (1-7.8)), those in good health (2.3 (1.1-4.5)), and nonkhat chewers (4.9 (1.4-17.1)). Nonsmokers were less likely to have good quality sleep compared to occasional smokers (0.185 (0.071-.485)). Stress (30%) and academic workload (21%) were the most commonly reported causes of poor sleep quality. Almost two-thirds of the students (65%) mentioned that disturbed sleep undermined their academic performance. Conclusions. Poor sleep quality is common among Sana’a medical students and impacts their academic performance. Specific stress management and sleep hygiene promoting programs should be incorporated early on in medical education.
Sleep Pattern and Problems in Young Children Visiting Outpatient Department of a Tertiary Level Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal
Background. Sleep is an important parameter of a child’s growth and development. The pattern and duration of sleep varies with age. Sleep problems are a common occurrence during childhood days, and these problems that establish in childhood are presumed to continue later in life. Many times, parental concerns regarding their child’s sleep problems like difficulty in putting to sleep, frequent night time awakening, and waking up early are overlooked during their visits to the hospital. Objective. The aim of this study was to find out the sleep patterns and problems of children aged six to thirty-six months. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the pediatric outpatient department of Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital from October, 2019 till March, 2020. Two hundred and forty-nine respondents were chosen purposively and were given questionnaires to be filled out. Research instrument was a standard, Nepali version of a structured questionnaire called Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ) which contained questions related to sleep parameters and sleep problems existing among young children of 6-36 months. Mean, standard deviation, frequencies, and Kruskal Wallis test were used for statistical analysis. Results. The mean duration of total sleep was hours, while that of night sleep was hours and mean daytime nap was hours. Most of the children (96%) coslept with their parents, and 55% of the children had feeding as a bedtime ritual. Overall, 19.6% of the children had sleep problems as identified by BISQ although only 5.6% of the parents perceived that their children had it. Conclusions. Sleep problems were present among young Nepalese children included in our study, and sleep assessment should be a part of every health checkup for children.