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Sleep Disorders
Volume 2012, Article ID 583510, 11 pages
Research Article

The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns, Consumption of Caffeinated Beverages, and Khat Use among Ethiopian College Students

1Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
2Multidisciplinary International Research Training Program, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Kresge 501, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3Department of Mathematics & Statistics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057, USA

Received 13 September 2012; Accepted 19 November 2012

Academic Editor: Michel M. Billiard

Copyright © 2012 Seblewengel Lemma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To evaluate sleep habits, sleep patterns, and sleep quality among Ethiopian college students; and to examine associations of poor sleep quality with consumption of caffeinated beverages and other stimulants. Methods. A total of 2,230 undergraduate students completed a self-administered comprehensive questionnaire which gathered information about sleep complaints, sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics,and theuse of caffeinated beverages and khat. We used multivariable logistic regression procedures to estimate odds ratios for the associations of poor sleep quality with sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results. Overall 52.7% of students were classified as having poor sleep quality (51.8% among males and 56.9% among females). In adjusted multivariate analyses, caffeine consumption ( ; 95% CI: 1.25–1.92), cigarette smoking ( ; 95% CI: 1.06–2.63), and khat use ( , 95% CI: 1.09–2.71) were all associated with increased odds of long-sleep latency (>30 minutes). Cigarette smoking ( ; 95% CI: 1.11–2.73) and khat consumption ( ; 95% CI: 1.22–3.00) were also significantly associated with poor sleep efficiency (<85%), as well as with increased use of sleep medicine. Conclusion. Findings from the present study demonstrate the high prevalence of poor sleep quality and its association with stimulant use among college students. Preventive and educational programs for students should include modules that emphasize the importance of sleep and associated risk factors.