Sleep Disorders / 2012 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns, Consumption of Caffeinated Beverages, and Khat Use among Ethiopian College Students

Table 3

Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for poor sleep quality.

CharacteristicUnadjusted
OR (95% CI)
Age and sex adjusted
OR (95% CI)
Multivariate *adjusted
OR (95% CI)

Sex
 Male1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Female1.18 (0.97–1.44)1.25 (1.02–1.55)1.37 (1.08–1.73)
Smoking status
 Never1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Ever1.27 (0.81–1.97)1.32 (0.84–2.07)
Number of alcohol drinks
 <1 drink/month1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 1–19 drinks/month1.05 (0.82–1.33)1.06 (0.83–1.36)
 ≥20 drinks/month2.16 (0.94–4.96)2.12 (0.92–4.91)
Khat consumption
 No1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Yes1.31 (0.98–1.75)1.32 (0.98–1.77)
Any caffeine containing beverages consumption
 No1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Yes1.29 (1.05–1.59)1.29 (1.04–1.59)1.23 (0.99–1.53)
Physical activity
 No1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Yes1.27 (1.05–1.54)1.28 (1.05–1.55)1.27 (1.02–1.64)

Adjusted odds ratios provided for variables selected in the final model using forward logistic regression.
**Poor sleep quality: PSQI Global score > 5.