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Sleep Disorders
Volume 2015, Article ID 607148, 9 pages
Research Article

Residual Effects of Sleep Medications Are Commonly Reported and Associated with Impaired Patient-Reported Outcomes among Insomnia Patients in the United States

1Merck & Co., Whitehouse Station, NJ 08889, USA
2Kantar Health, 20121 Milan, Italy

Received 12 August 2015; Accepted 15 November 2015

Academic Editor: Giora Pillar

Copyright © 2015 Timothy Fitzgerald and Jeffrey Vietri. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Study Objective. To measure the association of symptoms attributed to residual effects of sleep medication (e.g., drowsiness, difficulty concentrating, and impaired memory) on self-reported functioning and satisfaction with these medications. Methods. Individuals using prescription medications for insomnia were invited to complete an Internet-based survey. Respondents were compared according to the presence of self-reported residual effects; relationships between severity of these effects and outcomes were modeled using regression. Measures included the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire, and SATMED-Q. Subgroup analyses were conducted with patients aged ≥65 years. Approximately 80% reported experiencing ≥1 residual effect. The severity of residual effects was associated with increased residual effect-related work impairment, including absenteeism (RR = 1.46, ), presenteeism (RR = 1.12, ), overall work impairment (RR = 1.13, ), and nonwork activity impairment (RR = 1.11, ). More severe residual symptoms were also associated with increased difficulty in home management (Beta = .31, ), ability to work (Beta = .31, ), social relationships, (Beta = .32, ), close personal relationships (Beta = .30, ), and lower medication satisfaction (Beta = , ). Conclusions. Individuals using medications for insomnia commonly experience symptoms considered as residual effects, and these symptoms are associated with greater interference of sleep-related problems at work, at home, and with social relationships.