† AHI (apnea-hypopnea index is the number of apneas and hypopneas per hour of recording. This was scored using type 1 polysomnogram with AASM 2016 scoring rules, specifically hypopnea rule of 3% or arousal.
§ BMI (body mass index) is the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters.
Gap measure was the number of cm between the fingers in a patient with a positive ESAP.
positive neck circumference was >16 inches in females and > 17inches in males. A negative neck circumference was <16 inches in women and < 17 inches in men.