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Scientific Programming
Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 37-47
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/1993/397679

A Parallel Implementation of Particle Tracking with Space Charge Effects on an Intel iPSC/860

L. Chang, G. Bourianoff, B. Cole, and S. Machida

Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory, *2550 Beckleymeade Avenue, Dallas, TX 75237, USA

Received 28 November 1992; Accepted 28 May 1993

Copyright © 1993 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Particle-tracking simulation is one of the scientific applications that is well suited to parallel computations. At the Superconducting Super Collider, it has been theoretically and empirically demonstrated that particle tracking on a designed lattice can achieve very high parallel efficiency on a MIMD Intel iPSC/860 machine. The key to such success is the realization that the particles can be tracked independently without considering their interaction. The perfectly parallel nature of particle tracking is broken if the interaction effects between particles are included. The space charge introduces an electromagnetic force that will affect the motion of tracked particles in three-dimensional (3-D) space. For accurate modeling of the beam dynamics with space charge effects, one needs to solve 3-D Maxwell field equations, usually by a particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm. This will require each particle to communicate with its neighbor grids to compute the momentum changes at each time step. It is expected that the 3-D PIC method will degrade parallel efficiency of particle-tracking implementation on any parallel computer. In this paper, we describe an efficient scheme for implementing particle tracking with space charge effects on an INTEL iPSC/860 machine. Experimental results show that a parallel efficiency of 75% can be obtained.