Magnitude of Abdominal Wound Dehiscence and Associated Factors of Patients Who Underwent Abdominal Operation at St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaRead the full article
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Levels of Intestinal Inflammation and Fibrosis in Resection Specimens after Preoperative Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Treatment in Patients with Crohn’s Disease: A Comparative Pilot Study
Background. Strictures are a common complication in Crohn’s disease (CD), found in more than 50% of patients. They are characterized by the excessive deposition of extracellular proteins in the tissue as a result of the chronic inflammatory process. The effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) therapy on the development of fibrosis is not yet fully understood. Aim. To investigate whether the degree of intestinal inflammation and fibrosis is correlated with preoperative anti-TNF-α therapy in patients with CD who are undergoing bowel resection. Methods. This unblinded, prospective, single tertiary center, pilot cohort study included all adult patients with CD who underwent elective, laparoscopic, or open intestinal resection. Preoperative investigations included measurement of blood TNF-α concentration, specific antidrug antibodies, and the concentration of selected inflammatory cytokines. Three pathologists independently examined the specimens and assessed the degree of inflammation and fibrosis. Results. Histopathological specimens from 10 patients with CD who underwent ileocecal or ileocolic resections were retrieved. Four of those patients were on anti-TNF-α treatment prior to surgery. The last dose of the anti-TNF-α agent was administered 1–9 weeks prior to bowel resection. Patients on anti-TNF-α treatment had a higher fibrosis score than controls (). Anti-TNF-α treatment was not associated with an increase in CD68- or CD163-positive macrophages. There was no significant relationship between the time from the final preoperative anti-TNF-α dose to surgery and the fibrosis score. No significant association was found between the concentration of major inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, and the fibrosis score or degree of inflammation. Conclusions. Patients who underwent preoperative anti-TNF-α treatment had a higher fibrosis score than controls.
Early Readmissions after Esophagectomy for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: Does Facility Case-Volume Matter?
Increased esophagectomy procedures over the past four decades have correlated with the rise in incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Despite advances in technology and procedural expertise, esophagectomy remains a high-risk surgical procedure. Higher volume facilities have more experience with esophagectomy and would be expected to have a lower incidence of surgical complications and attendant morbidity and mortality. By analyzing information from a nationwide United States hospital database, we sought to find out if there is a significant difference between facilities stratified by case volume, with regards to 30-day readmission after esophagectomy. The findings of this study indicated that even with a large applied differential, early readmissions did not differ significantly between high- and low-volume centers. Also, analyzed and discussed were any associated demographic and comorbidity factors as they relate to early readmissions after esophagectomy for esophageal adenocarcinoma across the country. This is the first study to specifically address these variables.
Does Implantation of an Artificial Soft Anal Band Provide an Opportunity for Improvement of Biopsychosocial Function in Patients with Severe Fecal Incontinence?
Introduction. Severe fecal incontinence describes a condition of complete loss of control over fundamental physiological functions and loss of abilities to fulfil psychosocial functions by the patients. The last-step procedure, that is, to restore hope for improvement of biopsychosocial functioning and quality of life determined by the patient’s health status is implantation of an artificial anal sphincter. Objective. The study was a comparative analysis of the effect of the employed surgical procedure upon the degree of defecation control and quality of life indices in its behavioral, mental, and social aspects prior to and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The analysis also included the effect of the patient’s individual style of coping with stress and the functional outcome of the procedure. Material and Methods. The study included a group of 12 patients: 6 females and 6 males, aged from 36 to 60 years of life. The tools consisted of scoring systems that measured symptom intensity (FISI and Jorge and Wexner scale). In assessing the psychosocial functioning, the authors employed the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (by Rockwood). The individual mode of coping with the disease was evaluated by using the CISS scale by Endler and Parker. Conclusions. The analysis of results demonstrated that the procedure of implanting an artificial anal sphincter affected the “continence” (up to 50–60% postoperatively) and led to improvement in psychosocial functioning in all its assessed aspects, i.e., lifestyle, employment of precautionary measures, depression, anxiety, and embarrassment. It was also noted that due to the specific character of the procedure (the necessity to operate an artificial implant), better mean results in assessment of the procedure functionality were achieved by patients presenting the goal-concentrated mode rather than emotions-concentrated mode of coping with the disease. Thus, it seems justified to state that assessment of biopsychological functioning may be a good criterion of the procedure effectiveness.
Use of Integra for Reconstruction after Nevi Resection: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis of Reported Cases
Background. The use of Integra Dermal Reconstruction Template has emerged as an option for wound reconstruction, after resection of congenital nevi, especially giant congenital nevi. There have been many reports on Integra use in the literature for this purpose. This systematic review with pooled analysis examines the current literature regarding Integra use after resection of congenital nevi, including patient characteristics and reported outcomes. Methods. Systematic electronic searches were performed using PubMed, Ovid, Embase, and Cochrane library databases for studies reporting the use of Integra to reconstruct defects after nevi resection. Studies were analyzed if they met the inclusion criteria. Pooled descriptive statistics were performed. Results. Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were included for analysis, yielding 31 procedures in 31 patients. Eleven of the thirteen studies were case reports representing 17 of the 31 patients. One study was retrospective, and the other study was a prospective study. The mean follow-up was 2.67 years (range, 0.2–13 years). The overall wound closure rate was 100%. The overall initial Integra take rate was 90.3% and the skin graft take rate was 100%. The rate of reported complications was 14.8%. The average age of patients was 7.36 years. The average size of the nevus was 6.29% TBSA (range, 0.005%–26%), and the time to definitive skin grafting was 3.28 weeks. Significant heterogeneity was found among the published studies. Conclusion. We conclude that the use of Integra appears to be a safe and viable option for defect reconstruction after the primary or secondary excision of congenital nevi of different sizes and on most parts of the body. Long-term follow-up studies and prospective cohort studies are required in order to fully estimate the incidence of complications. However, the rarity of this condition make these types of studies very difficult.
Surgical Management Outcome of Intestinal Obstruction and Its Associated Factors at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2018
Background. Intestinal obstruction (IO) is one of the most common acute abdominal disorders that often requires emergency surgical management in the hospital setting. However, the surgical management sometimes ends with unfavorable outcomes characterized by fatal and nonfatal postoperative complications. Aim. The aim of this study was to analyze the surgical management outcome of IO and its associated factors among surgically treated patients for intestinal obstruction at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (UGCSH), Ethiopia, 2018. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among patients who were surgically treated for IO during the last 3 years at the UGCSH. The patient participants were selected using a systematic random sampling technique. A structured research tool was used to collect all the necessary data from the patients’ medical records. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 21. Frequencies with percentages were used to describe the surgical management outcome of IO. The binary logistic regression model was used to explore the determinant factors associated with the surgical management outcome of IO. Factors at were declared statically significant. Results. 227 patient participants were included and finally analyzed in this study. From these, 83.3% patients have favorable surgical management outcomes of IO, whereas the rest 16.7% patients have unfavorable outcomes. Of 38 patients with unfavorable outcome, the most common postoperative complication occurred was surgical site infection (36.8%), followed by pneumonia (23.6%) and septic shock (21.0%) among other complications. A total of 10 postoperative deaths were also documented as unfavorable surgical management outcomes of IO. Of the determinant factors analyzed in this study, only three factors, duration of illness before surgery, length of hospital stay after surgery, and comorbidity, were independently significantly associated with the surgical management outcome of IO. Conclusions. In this study, the majority of patients had favorable surgical management outcomes of IO, and the proportion of patients with unfavorable outcomes was however considerable. Thus, designing a strategy addressing the significantly associated determining factors could be helpful to further increase the likelihood of favorable surgical management outcomes of IO.
Risk Factors of Pancreatic Fistula in Distal Pancreatectomy Patients
Introduction. Benign and malignant lesions of the pancreas located at the body and tail of the pancreas are managed by the standard procedure of distal pancreatectomy (DP). The mortality associated with this procedure is reported as less than 5% in high-volume centers. The major proportion of morbidity is comprised of pancreatic fistula with a reported incidence of 5% to 60%. The most considered risk factors associated with pancreatic fistula formation are soft pancreatic texture, diameter of the pancreatic duct <3 mm, intraoperative blood loss >1000 ml and surgical techniques. Among all these factors, the modifiable factor is the surgical technique. Several surgical techniques have been developed and modified for closure of the pancreatic remnant in the recent past in order to minimize the risk of pancreatic fistula and other complications. The main objective of the study is to analyze the factors associated with formation of pancreatic fistula after distal pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods. We performed a single-center retrospective study at Aga Khan University Hospital from January 2004 till December 2015. The perioperative and postoperative data of 131 patients who underwent pancreatic resection were recorded by using ICD 9 coding. 45 patients underwent distal pancreatectomy, out of which 38 were included in the study based on inclusion criteria. Variables were grouped into demographics, indications, operative details, and postoperative course. Statistical analysis software (SPSS) was used for analysis. Quantitative variables were presented as mean with standard deviation or median with interquartile range depending on the distribution of data. Study endpoints for the risk factor analysis were surgical morbidity and development of pancreatic fistula. Univariate logistic regressions were performed associated with study endpoints. value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Postoperative pancreatic fistula was the most common perioperative morbidity. The significant associated risk factor for pancreatic fistula was multivisceral resection as compared to spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy ( value 0.039). However, the technique of stump closure when opted for suture techniques was seen to be associated with a higher occurrence of postoperative pancreatic fistula. The mortality rate was 2.6%. Conclusion. Postoperative pancreatic fistula is the most common complication seen after distal pancreatectomy in our series. Multivisceral resection is associated with a high incidence of pancreatic fistula and is a statistical significant predictor of pancreatic fistula.