Short Term Outcomes of Open and Minimally Invasive Approaches to Segmental Colectomy for Benign Colovesical FistulaRead the full article
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Efficacy of Prophylactic Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy with Delayed Primary Closure for Contaminated Abdominal Wounds
Background. Prophylactic negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) to prevent surgical site infection (SSI) may be effective for severely contaminated wounds. We investigated the safety and efficacy of NPWT with delayed primary closure (DPC) for preventing SSI. Methods. For patients with contaminated and dirty/infected surgical wounds after an emergency laparotomy, the abdominal fascia was closed with antibacterial absorbent threads and the skin was left open. Negative pressure (−80 mmHg) was applied through the polyurethane foam, which was replaced on postoperative days 3 and 7. DPC was performed when sufficient granulation was observed. The duration and adverse events of NPWT, the development of SSI, and the postoperative hospital stay were retrospectively reviewed. Results. We analyzed the cases of patients with contaminated (n = 15) and dirty/infected wounds (n = 7). The median duration of NPWT was 7 days (range 5–11 days). NPWT was discontinued in one (4.5%) patient due to wound traction pain. SSI developed in seven patients (31.8%), with incisional SSI in one (4.5%) and organ/space SSI in six (27.3%). The median postoperative hospital stay was 17 days (range 7–91 days). There was no significant relationship between postoperative hospital stay and wound classification () or type of SSI (). Conclusion. Prophylactic NPWT with DPC was feasible and may be particularly suitable for severely contaminated wounds, with a low incidence of incisional SSI.
Management Outcome and Factors Associated with Pediatric Surgical Patient Admitted to Arbaminch General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia, 2021: Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Pediatric surgical situations are often disregarded around the world, particularly in developing countries. The number of children hospitalized for surgical reasons has climbed dramatically. There is extensive research on the management outcome of pediatric surgical admissions in industrialized countries, but developing countries have paid little attention to it. Furthermore, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, there has been no research in the study area on the management outcome of pediatric surgical patient admission. Objective. To assess management outcome and factors associated with pediatric surgical patients admitted to Arbaminch General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia, 2021. Method. An institution-based retrospective cross-sectional study design was employed among 265 children with surgical problems. Data were collected from patients’ medical records using pretested data collection checklist. Epi Data 4.2 was used to enter data, and data were exported to SPSS version 25 for analysis. Those variables with -value ≤0.25 in bivariable analysis were entered into multivariable logistic regression analysis, and statistical significance was declared at . Result. A total of 265 surgically admitted children were included in this study. About 26% of study subjects were discharged with unfavorable management outcome. Children admitted due to trauma cause (AOR: 5.753, 95% CI: 2.366–13.987), children with a preexisting medical condition (AOR: 3.240, 95% CI: 1.436–7.310), children with an early complication (AOR: 2.515, 95% CI: 1.130–5.599), presenting to hospital ≥24 hr after the onset (AOR:8.351, 95% CI: 2.089–33.381), hospital stay >7 days (AOR: 10.671, 95% CI: 1.363–83.546), and children treated with surgery (AOR: 2.742, 95% CI: 1.137–6.611) were associated with unfavorable management outcome. Conclusion and recommendations: Twenty-six percent of patients were discharged with unfavorable outcome. Reasons for admission, preexisting medical condition, early complications, duration of hospital presentation, length of hospitalization, and type of management were all linked to the outcome of pediatric surgical admission. To have a good outcome, early identification and treatment of the cause are required, as well as well-equipped surgical care centers.
Emergency Presentations of Meckel’s Diverticulum in Adults
Introduction. Meckel’s diverticulum is the commonest congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract in humans that is commonly encountered during surgical practice as the cause of the patient’s presentation or as an incidental finding during other unrelated procedures. Most clinical symptoms are caused due to its complications. Results. The mean age of the involved patients was 24.79 years with slight male predominance, 62.9% males compared to 37.1% females. The mean length of the diverticulum was 55.21 cm. The most common emergency presentation was right lower quadrant abdominal pain in 31% of the patients, intestinal obstruction in 28.6%, acute lower abdominal pain and guarding and acute abdomen in 18.6% and 15.7% of patients, respectively, bleeding per rectum in 2.9%, acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain in 1.4%, and obstructed paraumbilical hernia containing the diverticulum in one patient. Perforation of the Meckel’s diverticulum was reported in 18.6%. Histopathological examination showed acute inflammation in the wall of the diverticulum in 37.1%, lymphoid hyperplasia in 24.3%, hemorrhagic necrosis in 22.9%, and chronic inflammation in 8.6%. Ectopic mucosa was detected in 50% of the cases, gastric mucosa was detected in 42.86%, ectopic pancreatic mucosa was detected in 5.71%, and both gastric and pancreatic types in 1.43%. Conclusion. Long diverticula are more liable to develop complications. At surgery, inspection and palpation of the wall of the diverticulum must be done for any evidence of inflammation, necrosis, perforation, or abnormal thickening of the walls of the diverticulum. Resection of the segment of the bowel that contains the diverticulum with primary anastomosis is preferable to other procedures due to the risk of leaving behind an abnormal heterotopic mucosa.
Incidence of Early and Late-Onset Clostridioides difficile Infection following Appendectomy Compared to Other Common Abdominal Surgical Procedures
Introduction. Clostridioides difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) is a major public health issue. The appendix may function as a reservoir for the intestinal microbiome, which may repopulate the intestine following enteric infections including CDAD. Patients/Methods. This retrospective cohort study includes a total of 12,039 patients undergoing appendectomy, hemicolectomy, and cholecystectomy at a single center between 1992 and 2011 who were diagnosed with early and late-onset CDAD and were followed for a minimum of two years. Results. Cumulative CDAD rates were 2.3% after appendectomy, 6.4% after left and 6.8% after right hemicolectomy, and 4% after cholecystectomy with a median onset of 76 (range 1–6011) days after the procedure. Median time to CDAD onset was 76 days after appendectomy, 23 days after left, 54 days after right hemicolectomy, and 122 days after cholecystectomy (). Late-onset CDAD (>1 year) was significantly more common following appendectomy (37%) and cholecystectomy (39%) than after left (17%) and right (21%) hemicolectomy. Significant differences in age, gender, complication rate, and length of hospitalization between the four groups need to be considered when interpreting the results. Conclusion. The incidence of CDAD after various abdominal surgeries ranged between 2% and 7% in this study. Whereas, hemicolectomy patients had predominantly early onset CDAD, and appendectomy and cholecystectomy may increase the risk for late-onset CDAD. Appendectomy per se does not seem to increase the risk for late-onset CDAD.
Preoperative Hyponatremia Indicates Complicated Acute Appendicitis
Introduction. Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency. Early detection of patients with complicated appendicitis leads to prompt surgical management and better outcome. This study investigated the relationship between the severity of acute appendicitis and the presence of preoperative hyponatremia. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical files of adult patients operated on for acute appendicitis over a 6-year period. Hyponatremia was defined as serum sodium level of ≤135 mEq/L. Patients were classified into complicated appendicitis and noncomplicated appendicitis according to operative findings and/or histopathology reports. Results. A total of 129 patients were identified and included in this study. Complicated appendicitis was found more frequently in female patients and older patients. Hyponatremia was found significantly more frequently in patients with complicated appendicitis () and also in patients with perforation than without perforation (). Conclusions. The present study demonstrated that preoperative hyponatremia is associated with complicated appendicitis. Serum sodium levels, a routine, low-cost laboratory test, could act as an accessory marker aiding surgeons in earlier identification of gangrenous or perforated acute appendicitis.
Association of Serum Creatinine Level with Prognosis of Laparotomy for Acute Mesenteric Ischemia after Cardiovascular Surgery
Introduction. Acute mesenteric ischemia is a life-threatening complication after cardiovascular surgery with a mortality rate of 52.9–81.3%. However, few studies have evaluated the predictors of clinical outcome after treatment for acute mesenteric ischemia following cardiovascular surgery. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate prognostic factors in patients who underwent laparotomy for acute mesenteric ischemia after cardiovascular surgery. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 29 patients (20 men and 9 women; median age, 71.0 years) who underwent laparotomy for acute mesenteric ischemia after cardiovascular surgery between January 2010 and August 2020. These patients were classified into the survivor group (comprising patients who were discharged or referred to another hospital, n = 16) and the nonsurvivor group (comprising those who experienced in-hospital mortality, n = 13). We compared clinical parameters between the groups to identify the predictors of outcomes. Results. More patients in the nonsurvivor group underwent emergency cardiovascular surgery (62.5% vs. 100%, = 0.017) and received hemodialysis (12.5% vs. 61.5%, = 0.008) at the onset of acute mesenteric ischemia than those in the survivor group. The prelaparotomy serum creatinine level was higher in the nonsurvivor group than in the survivor group (1.27 vs. 2.33 mg/dL, = 0.004). Logistic regression analysis revealed an association between preoperative serum creatinine level and in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 5.047, = 0.046), and Cox regression analysis demonstrated a relationship between serum creatinine level and in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio 1.610, = 0.009). The area under the curve (receiver operating characteristic analysis) for the serum creatinine level was 0.813. Furthermore, the optimal cutoff value of the serum creatinine level was 1.59 mg/dL with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.846 and 0.687, respectively, in predicting in-hospital mortality. Conclusions. The elevated serum creatinine level was associated with a poor clinical outcome after surgery for acute mesenteric ischemia following cardiovascular surgery.