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Use of Integra for Reconstruction after Nevi Resection: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis of Reported Cases
Background. The use of Integra Dermal Reconstruction Template has emerged as an option for wound reconstruction, after resection of congenital nevi, especially giant congenital nevi. There have been many reports on Integra use in the literature for this purpose. This systematic review with pooled analysis examines the current literature regarding Integra use after resection of congenital nevi, including patient characteristics and reported outcomes. Methods. Systematic electronic searches were performed using PubMed, Ovid, Embase, and Cochrane library databases for studies reporting the use of Integra to reconstruct defects after nevi resection. Studies were analyzed if they met the inclusion criteria. Pooled descriptive statistics were performed. Results. Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were included for analysis, yielding 31 procedures in 31 patients. Eleven of the thirteen studies were case reports representing 17 of the 31 patients. One study was retrospective, and the other study was a prospective study. The mean follow-up was 2.67 years (range, 0.2–13 years). The overall wound closure rate was 100%. The overall initial Integra take rate was 90.3% and the skin graft take rate was 100%. The rate of reported complications was 14.8%. The average age of patients was 7.36 years. The average size of the nevus was 6.29% TBSA (range, 0.005%–26%), and the time to definitive skin grafting was 3.28 weeks. Significant heterogeneity was found among the published studies. Conclusion. We conclude that the use of Integra appears to be a safe and viable option for defect reconstruction after the primary or secondary excision of congenital nevi of different sizes and on most parts of the body. Long-term follow-up studies and prospective cohort studies are required in order to fully estimate the incidence of complications. However, the rarity of this condition make these types of studies very difficult.
Surgical Management Outcome of Intestinal Obstruction and Its Associated Factors at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2018
Background. Intestinal obstruction (IO) is one of the most common acute abdominal disorders that often requires emergency surgical management in the hospital setting. However, the surgical management sometimes ends with unfavorable outcomes characterized by fatal and nonfatal postoperative complications. Aim. The aim of this study was to analyze the surgical management outcome of IO and its associated factors among surgically treated patients for intestinal obstruction at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (UGCSH), Ethiopia, 2018. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among patients who were surgically treated for IO during the last 3 years at the UGCSH. The patient participants were selected using a systematic random sampling technique. A structured research tool was used to collect all the necessary data from the patients’ medical records. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 21. Frequencies with percentages were used to describe the surgical management outcome of IO. The binary logistic regression model was used to explore the determinant factors associated with the surgical management outcome of IO. Factors at were declared statically significant. Results. 227 patient participants were included and finally analyzed in this study. From these, 83.3% patients have favorable surgical management outcomes of IO, whereas the rest 16.7% patients have unfavorable outcomes. Of 38 patients with unfavorable outcome, the most common postoperative complication occurred was surgical site infection (36.8%), followed by pneumonia (23.6%) and septic shock (21.0%) among other complications. A total of 10 postoperative deaths were also documented as unfavorable surgical management outcomes of IO. Of the determinant factors analyzed in this study, only three factors, duration of illness before surgery, length of hospital stay after surgery, and comorbidity, were independently significantly associated with the surgical management outcome of IO. Conclusions. In this study, the majority of patients had favorable surgical management outcomes of IO, and the proportion of patients with unfavorable outcomes was however considerable. Thus, designing a strategy addressing the significantly associated determining factors could be helpful to further increase the likelihood of favorable surgical management outcomes of IO.
Risk Factors of Pancreatic Fistula in Distal Pancreatectomy Patients
Introduction. Benign and malignant lesions of the pancreas located at the body and tail of the pancreas are managed by the standard procedure of distal pancreatectomy (DP). The mortality associated with this procedure is reported as less than 5% in high-volume centers. The major proportion of morbidity is comprised of pancreatic fistula with a reported incidence of 5% to 60%. The most considered risk factors associated with pancreatic fistula formation are soft pancreatic texture, diameter of the pancreatic duct <3 mm, intraoperative blood loss >1000 ml and surgical techniques. Among all these factors, the modifiable factor is the surgical technique. Several surgical techniques have been developed and modified for closure of the pancreatic remnant in the recent past in order to minimize the risk of pancreatic fistula and other complications. The main objective of the study is to analyze the factors associated with formation of pancreatic fistula after distal pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods. We performed a single-center retrospective study at Aga Khan University Hospital from January 2004 till December 2015. The perioperative and postoperative data of 131 patients who underwent pancreatic resection were recorded by using ICD 9 coding. 45 patients underwent distal pancreatectomy, out of which 38 were included in the study based on inclusion criteria. Variables were grouped into demographics, indications, operative details, and postoperative course. Statistical analysis software (SPSS) was used for analysis. Quantitative variables were presented as mean with standard deviation or median with interquartile range depending on the distribution of data. Study endpoints for the risk factor analysis were surgical morbidity and development of pancreatic fistula. Univariate logistic regressions were performed associated with study endpoints. value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Postoperative pancreatic fistula was the most common perioperative morbidity. The significant associated risk factor for pancreatic fistula was multivisceral resection as compared to spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy ( value 0.039). However, the technique of stump closure when opted for suture techniques was seen to be associated with a higher occurrence of postoperative pancreatic fistula. The mortality rate was 2.6%. Conclusion. Postoperative pancreatic fistula is the most common complication seen after distal pancreatectomy in our series. Multivisceral resection is associated with a high incidence of pancreatic fistula and is a statistical significant predictor of pancreatic fistula.
Effect of Various OR Noise on Fine Motor Skills, Cognition, and Mood
Background. The amalgam of noises inherent to the modern-day operating room has the potential of diluting surgeon concentration, which could affect surgeon performance and mood and have implications on quality of care and surgeon resilience. Objective. Evaluate the impact of operating room environmental noises on surgeon performance including fine motor dexterity, cognition, and mood. Methods. 37 subjects were tested under three different environmental noise conditions including silence, a prerecorded soundtrack of a loud bustling operating room, and with background music of their choosing. We used the Motor Performance Series to test motor dexterity, neuropsychological tests to evaluate cognitive thinking, and Profile of Mood States to test mental well-being. Results. Our results showed that typical operating room noise had no impact on motor dexterity but music improved the speed and precision of movements and information processing skills. Neurocognitive testing showed a significant decrement from operating room noise on verbal learning and delayed memory, whereas music improved complex attention and mental flexibility. The Profile of Mood States found that music resulted in a significant decrease in feelings of anger, confusion, fatigue, and tension along with decreased total mood disturbance, which is a measure of psychological distress. Loud operating room noise had a negative impact on feelings of vigor but no increase in total mood disturbance. Conclusion. Our results suggest that loud and unnecessary environmental noises can be distracting to a surgeon, so every effort should be taken to minimize these. Music of the surgeons’ choosing does not negatively affect fine motor dexterity or cognition and has an overall positive impact on mood and can therefore be safely practiced if desired.
The Arterial Supply of the Distal Part of the Pancreas
The pancreatic surgery field has evolved greatly over the previous years. Nevertheless, the vascularization of the pancreas remains a difficult subject and requires further attention. The study was conducted using macroscopical dissection and corrosion cast methods. The total number of organ blocks was 72 (50 for dissection and 22 for corrosion cast). Based on the data obtained by dissection, we can distinguish three major types of vascularization of the distal pancreas. In type one, the pancreas was vascularized only by the short branches of the splenic artery and was encountered in 18 cases (36%). In type two, the pancreas was vascularized by the long and short branches of the splenic artery and was encountered in 20 cases (40%). In type three, the pancreas was vascularized only by the long branches of the splenic artery in 12 cases (24%). Compared to that, the corrosion cast method demonstrated type 1 in 8 cases (36.36%), type 2 in 10 cases (45.46%), and type 3 in 4 cases (18.18%). During the dissection, there were no arteries to the tail of the pancreas in 13 (26%) cases, one artery in 15 (30%) cases, two arteries in 19 (38%), and three arteries in three (6%) cases. The 22 corrosion cast specimens were also evaluated based on the classification of Roman Ramos and coworkers. Type I (small arcades) was in 9 (40.90%) cases, type II (small and large arcades) was in 7 (31.82%) cases, type III (large arcades) was in 5 (22.73%) cases, and type IV (straight branches) was in 1 (4.55%) case. The corrosion cast method allowed us to determine no arteries to the tail in 4 (18.18%) cases, one artery in 6 (27.27%) cases, two arteries in 10 (45.46%) cases and three arteries in two (9.09%) cases. The vascularization of the distal part of the pancreas is highly variable and should be taken into consideration during surgery.
Comparing the Predictive Power of Preoperative Risk Assessment Tools to Best Predict Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Kidney Transplant Patients
Background. Patients undergoing kidney transplantation have increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events due to histories of hypertension, end-stage renal disease, and dialysis. As such, they are especially in need of accurate preoperative risk assessment. Methods. We compared three different risk assessment models for their ability to predict major adverse cardiac events at 30 days and 1 year after transplant. These were the PORT model, the RCRI model, and the Gupta model. We used a method based on generalized U-statistics to determine statistically significant improvements in the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC), based on a common major adverse cardiac event (MACE) definition. For the top-performing model, we added new covariates into multivariable logistic regression in an attempt to create further improvement in the AUC. Results. The AUCs for MACE at 30 days and 1 year were 0.645 and 0.650 (PORT), 0.633 and 0.661 (RCRI), and finally 0.489 and 0.557 (Gupta), respectively. The PORT model performed significantly better than the Gupta model at 1 year (). When the sensitivity was set to 95%, PORT had a significantly higher specificity of 0.227 compared to RCRI’s 0.071 () and Gupta’s 0.08 (). Our additional covariates increased the receiver operator curve from 0.664 to 0.703, but this did not reach statistical significance (). Conclusions. Of the three calculators, PORT performed best when the sensitivity was set at a clinically relevant level. This is likely due to the unique variables the PORT model uses, which are specific to transplant patients.