Modeling Survival Time to Death among Stroke Patients at Jimma University Medical Center, Southwest Ethiopia: A Retrospective Cohort StudyRead the full article
Stroke Research and Treatment provides a platform for clinicians and basic scientists interested in cerebral circulation and associated diseases. Journal topics include risk factors, symptomatology, imaging, pathophysiology etc.
Stroke Research and Treatment maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Conventional Mirror Therapy versus Immersive Virtual Reality Mirror Therapy: The Perceived Usability after Stroke
Background. Stroke is a widespread and complex health issue, with many survivors requiring long-term rehabilitation due to upper-limb impairment. This study is aimed at comparing the perceived usability of two feedback-based stroke therapies: conventional mirror therapy (MT) and immersive virtual reality mirror therapy (VR). Methods. The study involved 45 participants, divided into three groups: the stroke survivors (), stroke-free older adults (), and young controls (). Participants performed two tasks using both MT and VR in a semirandom sequence. Usability instruments (SUS and NASA-TLX) were applied at the end of the activities, along with two experience-related questions. Results. The results indicated that both MT and VR had similar levels of perceived usability, with MT being more adaptable and causing less overall discomfort. Conversely, VR increased the perception of task difficulty and prevented participants from diverting their attention from the mirror-based feedback. Conclusion. While VR was found to be less comfortable than MT, both systems exhibited similar perceived usability. The comfort levels of the goggles may play a crucial role in determining the usability of VR for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke.
Effect of Self-Directed Home Therapy Adherence Combined with TheraBracelet on Poststroke Hand Recovery: A Pilot Study
Hand impairment is a common consequence of stroke, resulting in long-term disability and reduced quality of life. Recovery may be augmented through self-directed therapy activities at home, complemented by the use of rehabilitation devices such as peripheral sensory stimulation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adherence to self-directed therapy and the use of TheraBracelet (subsensory random-frequency vibratory stimulation) on hand function for stroke survivors. In a double-blind, randomized controlled pilot trial, 12 chronic stroke survivors were assigned to a treatment or control group (/group). All participants were instructed to perform 200 repetitions of therapeutic hand tasks 5 days/week while wearing a wrist-worn device 8 hours/day for 4 weeks. The treatment group received TheraBracelet vibration from the device, while the control group received no vibration. Home task repetition adherence and device wear logs, as well as hand function assessment (Stroke Impact Scale Hand domain), were obtained weekly. Repetition adherence was comparable between groups but varied among participants. Participants wore the device to a greater extent than adhering to completing repetitions. A linear mixed model analysis showed a significant interaction between repetition and group (), with greater adherence resulting in greater hand function change for the treatment group (; ), but not for the control group. Secondary analysis revealed that repetition adherence was greater for those with lower motor capacity and greater self-efficacy at baseline. This pilot study suggests that adherence to self-directed therapy at home combined with subsensory stimulation may affect recovery outcomes in stroke survivors. This trial is registered with NCT04026399.
The Burden and In-Hospital Mortality of Stroke Admissions at a Tertiary Level Hospital in Namibia: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Background. Despite stroke being a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, there is a dearth of information on the burden and outcomes of stroke in sub-Saharan Africa and Namibia in particular. Methods. A hospital-based, retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyse non-electronic medical records of all consecutive stroke patients who were admitted to one of the highest tertiary-level hospitals in Namibia for 12 months (2019-2020). The primary outcome of the study was to establish the in-hospital mortality, stroke subtypes, and associated complications. Results. In total, 220 patients were included in the study, their mean age was 53 (SD13.8) years, and 55.5% were males. 61.0% had an ischaemic stroke (IS), and 39.0% had a haemorrhagic stroke (HS). The mean age was significantly lower in patients with HS vs. IS ( vs. , ). Of the IS patients, the majority (29.0%) had total anterior circulation infarct (TACI), while in the HS group, 34.0% had basal ganglia haemorrhage with or without intraventricular extension. Hypertension (), dyslipidaemia (), alcohol consumption (), and other cardiovascular diseases () were more prevalent in patients with IS compared to those with HS. The prevalence rate of intravenous thrombolysis was 2.2% in IS and use of intravenous antihypertensives in 25.9% of patients with HS than IS. The in-hospital mortality was 26.4% with complications such as raised ICP, aspiration pneumonia, hydrocephalus, and sepsis significantly high in those that died. Aspiration pneumonia (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.63-4.76, ) and increased ICP (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.16-057, ) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality on the multivariate analysis. Conclusion. Our findings showed a younger mean age for stroke and mortality rate comparable to other low- to middle-income countries (LMICs). Hypertension and alcohol consumption were the main risk factors for both stroke subtypes, while aspiration pneumonia and raised intracranial pressure predicted in-hospital mortality.
Low Lymphocyte-to-Monocyte Ratio as a Possible Predictor of an Unfavourable Clinical Outcome in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke after Mechanical Thrombectomy
Background. Although considerable progress has been made in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), the clinical outcome of patients is still significantly influenced by the inflammatory response that follows stroke-induced brain injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of complete blood count parameters, including indices and ratios, for predicting the clinical outcome in AIS patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy (MT). Methods. This single-centre retrospective study is consisted of 179 patients. Patient data including demographic characteristics, risk factors, clinical data, laboratory parameters on admission, and clinical outcome were collected. Based on the clinical outcome assessed at 3 months after MT by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), patients were divided into two groups: the favourable group (mRS 0–2) and unfavourable group (mRS 3–6). Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to detect an independent predictor of the unfavourable clinical outcome. Results. An unfavourable clinical outcome was detected after 3 months in 101 patients (54.4%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) was an independent predictor of unfavourable clinical outcome at 3 months (, 95% confidence interval 0.625–0.928, and ). The value of 3.27 was chosen to be the optimal cut-off value of LMR. This value could predict the unfavourable clinical outcome with a 74.0% sensitivity and a 54.4% specificity. Conclusion. The LMR at the time of hospital admission is a predictor of an unfavourable clinical outcome at 3 months in AIS patients after MT.
Risk Factors for Hemorrhagic Stroke among Adults in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: A Hospital-Based Study in a Limited Resource Setting
Background. The prevalence of stroke is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. The scarcity of hospital-based stroke data in Lubumbashi (in the Democratic Republic of the Congo) led to the study, which was designed to describe the epidemiology of stroke and identify risk factors associated with hemorrhagic stroke among adult patients in Lubumbashi. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of 158 adult patients admitted for stroke in the internal medicine department of Lubumbashi University Clinics from January 2018 to December 2020. Sociodemographic and clinical features, cardiovascular risk factors, and hospital mortality were collected. A logistic regression has determined the risk of developing a hemorrhagic stroke. Results. Of 9,919 hospitalized patients, 158 had a stroke with a hospital prevalence of 1.6%; 86 (54.4%) patients had a hemorrhagic stroke while 72 (45.6%) had an ischemic stroke. Of which 41.1% (65/158) were women. The mean age was years. Main clinical signs were hemiplegia (63.3%), headache (48.7%), speech disorders (38.6%), and dizziness (38.6%). Hypertension (82.9%) and hyperglycemia (53.2%) were the most common risk factors. Inhospital mortality was 22.8%. After logistic regression, independent predictors for developing hemorrhagic stroke were hypertension (; 95% CI: 2.72–24.66; ) and atrial fibrillation (; 95% CI: 1.41–16.89; ). Conclusion. This study highlights the high stroke mortality in a resource-limited hospital and the burden of hypertension in the development of hemorrhagic stroke. It illustrates the need to establish stroke care setting to improve the quality of stroke care.
Technology-Dependent Rehabilitation Involving Action Observation and Movement Imagery for Adults with Stroke: Can It Work? Feasibility of Self-Led Therapy for Upper Limb Rehabilitation after Stroke
Background. Motor (re)learning via technology-dependent therapy has the potential to complement traditional therapies available to older adults living with stroke after hospital discharge and increase therapy dose. To date, little is known about the feasibility of technology-dependent therapy in a home setting for this population. Objective. To develop a technology-dependent therapy that provides mental and physical training for older adults with stroke and assess feasibility. Specifically we ask, “Can it work”? Design. Single group repeated measures. Methods. 13 participants, aged 18 years and over, were recruited over a six-month period. All participants had mild upper limb impairment following a stoke and were no longer receiving intensive rehabilitation. All participants received 18 days of technology-dependent therapy in their own home. Information was gathered on recruitment and retention, usability, and suitability of outcome measures. Results. 11 participants completed the study. The recruitment rate (number recruited/number canvassed; 10.7%) suggests 1907 participants would need to be canvassed to recruit the necessary sample size () for a definitive trial designed to provide 90% power at 5% level of significance to detect a clinically meaningful difference of 5.7 points on the Action Research Arm Test. The usability of the application was rated as exceptional on the System Usability Scale. Effectiveness cannot be determined from this study; however, there was a trend for improvement in measures of upper limb function and emotional well-being. Limitations. The study was limited by a relatively small sample size and lack of control group. Conclusions. This study demonstrated proof of concept of a technology-dependent therapy for upper limb rehabilitation following stroke. The data suggest a definitive trial is feasible, additional strategies to improve recruitment should be considered. Outcome measures aligned with the residual motor function of participants are required.