Effect of DLBS1033 on Functional Outcomes for Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled TrialRead the full article
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ABCD3-I and ABCD2 Scores in a TIA Population with Low Stroke Risk
Objectives. We aimed to evaluate the ABCD3-I score and compare it with the ABCD2 score in short- (1 week) and long-term (3 months; 1 year) stroke risk prediction in our post-TIA stroke risk study, MIDNOR TIA. Materials and Methods. We performed a prospective, multicenter study in Central Norway from 2012 to 2015, enrolling 577 patients with TIA. In a subset of patients with complete data for both scores (), we calculated the AUC statistics of the ABCD3-I score and compared this with the ABCD2 score. A telephone follow-up and registry data were used for assessing stroke occurrence. Results. Within 1 week, 3 months, and 1 year, 1.0% (), 3.3% (), and 5.2% () experienced a stroke, respectively. The AUCs for the ABCD3-I score were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.89) at 1 week, 0.66 (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.80) at 3 months, and 0.68 (0.95% CI, 0.56 to 0.79) at 1 year. The corresponding AUCs for the ABCD2 score were 0.55 (95% CI, 0.24 to 0.86), 0.55 (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.68), and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.50 to 0.76). Conclusions. The ABCD3-I score had limited value in a short-term prediction of subsequent stroke after TIA and did not reliably discriminate between low- and high-risk patients in a long-term follow-up. The ABCD2 score did not predict subsequent stroke accurately at any time point. Since there is a generally lower stroke risk after TIA during the last years, the benefit of these clinical risk scores and their role in TIA management seems limited. Clinical Trial Registration. This trial is registered with NCT02038725 (retrospectively registered, January 16, 2014).
The Modifiable Risk Factors of Uncontrolled Hypertension in Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Objective. This review aimed at figuring out the risk factors of uncontrolled hypertension in stroke. Method. This study systematically analyzed the hypertension risk factors available in the ProQuest, EBSCO, and PubMed databases published between 2010 and December 2019. The risk factors’ pooled odds ratio (POR) included in this research was calculated using both fixed and random-effect models. The meta-data analysis was processed using the Review Manager 5.3 (Rev Man 5.3). Result. Of 1868 articles, seven studies were included in this review searched using specific keywords. Based on the analysis results, there were 7 risk factors of uncontrolled hypertension in stroke: medication nonadherence ( [95% CI 1.71-2.89], ; ), use of antihypertensive drugs ( [95% CI 1.19-1.59, ; ), stage of hypertension ( [95% CI 1.02-1.27], ; ), diabetes mellitus ( [95% CI 0.52-0.99], ; ), atrial fibrillation ( [95% CI 1.48-2.04)], ; ), triglycerides ( [95% CI 1.23-1.75], ; ), and age ( [95% CI 0.89-1.18], ; ]. There were no bias publications among studies. Medication nonadherence and triglycerides had homogeneous variations, while the others had heterogeneous variations. Conclusion. Medication nonadherence, triglycerides, stage of hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and use of antihypertensive drugs significantly affect the uncontrolled hypertension in stroke.
Predictive Value of the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) in the Outcome of the Acute Ischemic Stroke and Its Correlation with Stroke Subtypes, NIHSS, and Cognitive Impairment
Objectives. This study is aimed at correlating ASPECTS with mortality and morbidity in patients with acute middle cerebral artery territory infarction and at determining the cutoff value of ASPECTS that may predict the outcome. Methods. 150 patients diagnosed with acute middle cerebral artery territory infarction were involved in this study. Risk factors, initial NIHSS, and GCS were determined. An initial or follow-up noncontrast CT brain was done and assessed by ASPECTS. Outcomes were determined by mRS during the follow-up of cases after 3 months. Correlations of ASPECTS and outcome variables were done by Spearman correlation. Logistic regression analysis and ROC curve were done to detect the cutoff value of ASPECTS that predicts unfavorable outcomes. Results. The most common subtypes of ischemic strokes were lacunar stroke in 66 patients (44%), cardioembolic stroke in 39 patients (26%), and LAA stroke in 30 cases (20%). The cardioembolic stroke had a statistically significant lower ASPECT score than other types of ischemic strokes (). Spearman correlation showed that lower ASPECTS values (worse outcome) were more in older patients and associated with lower initial GCS. ASPECTS values were inversely correlated with initial NIHSS, inpatient stay, inpatient complications, mortality, and mRS. The ASPECTS cutoff value determined for the prediction of unfavorable outcomes was equal to ≤7. The binary logistic regression analysis detected that patients with were significantly associated with about fourfold increased risk of poor outcomes (OR 3.95, 95% CI 2.09–11.38, and ). Conclusions. ASPECTS is a valuable and appropriate technique for the evaluation of the prognosis in acute ischemic stroke. Patients with high ASPECTS values are more likely to attain favorable outcomes, and the cutoff value of ASPECTS is a strong predictor for unfavorable outcomes. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04235920.
Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Incidence, Prehospital Evaluation, and Presentation of Ischemic Stroke at a Nonurban Comprehensive Stroke Center
Introduction. Many reports have described a decrease in the numbers of patients seeking medical attention for typical emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic. These reports primarily relate to urban areas with widespread community transmission. The impact of COVID-19 on nonurban areas with minimal community transmission is less well understood. Methods. Using a prospectively maintained prehospital quality improvement database, we reviewed our hospital EMS transports with a diagnosis of stroke from January to April 2019 (baseline) and January to April 2020 (pandemic). We compared the volume of patients, transport/presentation times, severity of presenting symptoms, and final diagnosis. Results. In January, February, March, and April 2019, 10, 11, 17, and 19 patients, respectively, were transported in comparison to 19, 14, 10, and 8 during the same months in 2020. From January through April 2019, there was a 53% increase in transports, compared to a 42% decrease during the same months in 2020, constituting significantly different trend-line slopes (3.30; 95% CI 0.48–6.12 versus -3.70; 95% CI -5.76–-1.64, ). Patient demographics, comorbidities, and symptom severity were mostly similar over the two time periods, and the number of patients with a final diagnosis of stroke was also similar. However, the median interval from EMS dispatch to ED arrival for patients with a final diagnosis of stroke was significantly longer in January to April 2020 () compared to the same time period in 2019 (, ). Discussion/Conclusion. Our data indicate a decrease in patient transport volumes and longer intervals to EMS activation for suspected stroke care. These results suggest that even in a nonurban location without widespread community transmission, patients may be delaying or avoiding care for severe illnesses such as stroke. Clinicians and public health officials should not ignore the potential impact of pandemic-like illnesses even in areas of relatively low disease prevalence.
Insight on the Genetics of Atrial Fibrillation in Puerto Rican Hispanics
Non-Hispanic whites present with higher atrial fibrillation (AF) prevalence than other racial minorities living in the mainland USA. In two hospital-based studies, Puerto Rican Hispanics had a lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation of 2.5% than non-Hispanic Whites with 5.7%. This data is particularly controversial because Hispanics possess a higher prevalence of traditional risk factors for developing AF yet have a lower AF prevalence. This phenomenon is known as the atrial fibrillation paradox. Despite recent advancements in understanding AF, its pathogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we compared a genetic dataset of Puerto Rican Hispanics to 111 SNP known to be associated with AF in a large European cohort and determine if they are associated with AF susceptibility in our cohort. To achieve this aim, we performed a secondary analysis of existing data using the following two studies: (1) The Pharmacogenetics of Warfarin in Puerto Ricans study and the (2) A Genomic Approach for Clopidogrel in Caribbean Hispanics, and assess for the presence of European SNPs associated with AF from the genome-wide association study of 1 million people identifies 111 loci for atrial fibrillation. We used data from 555 cardiovascular Puerto Rican Hispanic patients, consisting of 486 control and 69 cases. We found that the following SNPs showed significant association with AF in PHR: rs2834618, rs6462079, rs7508, rs2040862, and rs10458660. Some of these SNPs are proteins involved in lysosomal activities responsible for breaking ceramides to sphingosines and collagen deposition around atrial cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, we performed a machine learning analysis and determined that Native American admixture and heart failure were strongly predictive of AF in PHR. For the first time, this study provides some genetic insight into AF’s mechanisms in a Puerto Rican Hispanic cohort.
Treatment Outcome and Its Determinants among Patients Admitted to Stroke Unit of Jimma University Medical Center, Southwest Ethiopia
Background. Stroke is a public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the high prevalence of stroke in Ethiopia, there is a paucity of data with regard to drug treatment, treatment outcome, and risk factors of poor treatment outcome of stroke. Hence, this study is aimed at assessing treatment outcome and its determinants among patients admitted to stroke unit of Jimma University Medical Center (JUMC). Methods. A two-year hospital-based retrospective cross-sectional study was employed to analyze the medical records of patients admitted with stroke to stroke unit of Jimma University Medical Centre from February 1st, 2016 to March 30th, 2018. Data was entered by Epidata manager version 4.0.2 and analyzed by SPSS version 24. Multivariable logistic regression analysis with the backward stepwise approach was done to identify independent predictors of poor treatment outcome of stroke. Variables with value less than 0.05 were considered as statically significant determinants of poor treatment outcome. Results. Of 220 patients with stroke admitted to the Jimma University, 67.30% were male. Nearly two thirds (63.18%) of them had poor treatment outcomes. Dyslipidimics were administered to 60% of the patients, and the most popular antiplatelet used was aspirin, which was prescribed to 67.3% the patients. ((AOR): 2.56; 95% CI: 1.95-9.86, ), presence of comorbidity (AOR: 5.25; 95% CI: 1.08-17.69, ), admission with hemorrhagic stroke (AOR: 18.99; 95% CI: 7.05-42.07, ), and admission to the hospital after 24 hour of stroke onset (AOR: 4.98; 95% CI: 1.09-21.91, ) were independent predictors of poor treatment outcomes. Conclusion. Substantial numbers of stroke patients had poor treatment outcomes. Elderly patients, patients diagnosed with hemorrhagic stroke, patients with comorbidity, and those with delayed hospital admission were more likely to have poor treatment outcome. Hence, frequent monitoring and care should be given for the aforementioned patients. Awareness creation on the importance of early admission should be delivered particularly for patients who have risk factors of stroke (cardiovascular diseases).