Stroke Research and Treatment / 2011 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Experimental and Clinical Use of Therapeutic Hypothermia for Ischemic Stroke: Opportunities and Limitations

Table 1

Clinical studies with therapeutic hypothermia in acute stroke.

First author, year [ref.]Number of patientsSedated or awake
(+ antishivering drugs)
Method of coolingTime to treatment (h)1tPA2Target temperature (°C) + place of measurementDuration of coolingRewarming rateOutcome

Schwab et al., 1998 [69]25Sedated with fentanyl and propofolCooling blanket, cold infusion, cold washing4–24
Mean 14
33
Bladder
48–72 hPassive rewarming  in 24 hSSS4 and BI5
(4 weeks and 3 months)
Kammersgaard et al. 2001, [70]17Awake (pethidine)Cooling blanket, cold air<12
Mean 3
35.5
Tympanic and rectal
6 hIn 4 h to 36.5°CSSS4 (6 months)
Schwab et al., 2001 [71]50Sedated with midazolam or propofol and morphine or fentanylCooling blanket, alcohol, ice bags4–75
Mean 22
33
Bladder
24–72 hPassive rewarming in 11–24 hNIHSS6 (4 weeks)
mRS7 (3 months)
BI5 (3 months)
Georgiadis et al., 2001 [72]6Sedated with midazolam andfentanylEndovascular cooling12–58
Mean 28
33
Bladder
48–72 h1°C/8 h
Max 0.2°C/h
NA3
Krieger et al., 2001 [56]10Sedated with propofolCooling blanket, ice waterMean 6+32
Bladder
12–72 h0.21°C/hmRS7 (3 months)
De Georgia et al., 2004 [73]18Awake (meperidine and buspirone)Endovascular cooling, warming blanket<12
Mean 9
33
Esophageal
24 h0.2°C/hNIHSS6 and mRS7
(30 +7 days)
Guluma et al., 2006 [22]10Awake (meperidine and buspirone)Endovascular cooling, warming blanket<6+33
Blood
24 h0.3°C/h
12 h
NA3
Kollmar et al., 2009 [74]10Awake (pethidine and buspirone)Ice-cold saline, warming blanket<3
Mean 2
+35.5
Tympanic
NA3NA3NIHSS6 (1 day and at discharge (± 4.5 days))
Hemmen et al., 2010 [75]58Awake (meperidine and buspirone)Endovascular cooling, warming blanket0–3
3–6
+33
Blood
24 h0.3°C/h
12 h
NIHSS6 (1, 30 and 90 days)
mRS7 (90 days)

1Time from the insult to initiation of treatment; 2tPA: tissue plasminogen activator (+: administered; −: not administered); 3NA: not available; 4SSS: Scandinavian Stroke Scale; 5BI: Barthel Index; 6NIHSS: National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; 7mRS: modified Rankin scale.