- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Stroke Research and Treatment
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 648061, 13 pages
Targeting Oxidative Stress Injury after Ischemic Stroke in Conscious Rats: Limited Benefits with Apocynin Highlight the Need to Incorporate Long Term Recovery
1Stroke Injury and Repair Team, O’Brien Institute, St Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia
2Cytoprotection Pharmacology Program, Centre for Eye Research, The Royal Eye and Ear Hospital Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
3Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
4Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Received 1 November 2012; Accepted 14 December 2012
Academic Editor: Iwa Antonow-Schlorke
Copyright © 2013 Robert M. Weston et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- B. Schaller, “Prospects for the future: the role of free radicals in the treatment of stroke,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 411–425, 2005.
- S. P. Green, B. Cairns, J. Rae et al., “Induction of gp91-phox, a component of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, in microglial cells during central nervous system inflammation,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 374–384, 2001.
- A. A. Miller, G. J. Dusting, C. L. Roulston, and C. G. Sobey, “NADPH-oxidase activity is elevated in penumbral and non-ischemic cerebral arteries following stroke,” Brain Research, vol. 1111, no. 1, pp. 111–116, 2006.
- S. K. McCann, G. J. Dusting, and C. L. Roulston, “Early increase of Nox4 NADPH oxidase and superoxide generation following endothelin-1-induced stroke in conscious rats,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 86, no. 11, pp. 2524–2534, 2008.
- C. X. Wang and A. Shuaib, “Neuroprotective effects of free radical scavengers in stroke,” Drugs and Aging, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 537–546, 2007.
- F. Jiang, G. R. Drummond, and G. J. Dusting, “Suppression of oxidative stress in the endothelium and vascular wall,” Endothelium, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 79–88, 2004.
- K. K. Griendling, D. Sorescu, and M. Ushio-Fukai, “NAD(P)H oxidase: role in cardiovascular biology and disease,” Circulation Research, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 494–501, 2000.
- A. A. Miller, G. R. Drummond, H. H. Schmidt, and C. G. Sobey, “NADPH oxidase activity and function are profoundly greater in cerebral versus systemic arteries,” Circulation Research, vol. 97, no. 10, pp. 1055–1062, 2005.
- P. Vallet, Y. Charnay, K. Steger et al., “Neuronal expression of the NADPH oxidase NOX4, and its regulation in mouse experimental brain ischemia,” Neuroscience, vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 233–238, 2005.
- E. C. Chan, F. Jiang, H. M. Peshavariya, and G. J. Dusting, “Regulation of cell proliferation by NADPH oxidase-mediated signaling: potential roles in tissue repair, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 97–108, 2009.
- R. Vlahos, J. Stambas, S. Bozinovski, B. R. Broughton, G. R. Drummond, and S. Selemidis, “Inhibition of Nox2 oxidase activity ameliorates influenza a virus-induced lung inflammation,” PLoS Pathogens, vol. 7, no. 2, Article ID e1001271, 2011.
- L. L. Tang, K. Ye, X. F. Yang, and J. S. Zheng, “Apocynin attenuates cerebral infarction after transient focal ischaemia in rats,” Journal of International Medical Research, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 517–522, 2007.
- X. N. Tang, B. Cairns, N. Cairns, and M. A. Yenari, “Apocynin improves outcome in experimental stroke with a narrow dose range,” Neuroscience, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 556–562, 2008.
- K. A. Jackman, A. A. Miller, T. M. De Silva, P. J. Crack, G. R. Drummond, and C. G. Sobey, “Reduction of cerebral infarct volume by apocynin requires pretreatment and is absent in Nox2-deficient mice,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 156, no. 4, pp. 680–688, 2009.
- J. K. Callaway, M. J. Knight, D. J. Watkins, P. M. Beart, and B. Jarrott, “Delayed treatment with AM-36, a novel neuroprotective agent, reduces neuronal damage after endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion in conscious rats,” Stroke, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 2704–2712, 1999.
- C. L. Roulston, J. K. Callaway, B. Jarrott, O. L. Woodman, and G. J. Dusting, “Using behaviour to predict stroke severity in conscious rats: post-stroke treatment with 3′, 4′-dihydroxyflavonol improves recovery,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 584, no. 1, pp. 100–110, 2008.
- M. Yamamoto, A. Tamura, T. Kirino, M. Shimizu, and K. Sano, “Behavioral changes after focal cerebral ischemia by left middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats,” Brain Research, vol. 452, no. 1-2, pp. 323–328, 1988.
- J. K. Callaway, M. J. Knight, D. J. Watkins, P. M. Beart, B. Jarrott, and P. M. Delaney, “A novel, rapid, computerised method for quantitation of neuronal damage in a rat model of stroke,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 53–60, 2000.
- H. Shichinohe, S. Kuroda, H. Yasuda et al., “Neuroprotective effects of the free radical scavenger Edaravone (MCI-186) in mice permanent focal brain ischemia,” Brain Research, vol. 1029, no. 2, pp. 200–206, 2004.
- C. L. Roulston, A. J. Lawrence, R. E. Widdop, and B. Jarrott, “Minocycline treatment attenuates microglia activation and non-angiotensin II [125I] CGP42112 binding in brainstem following nodose ganglionectomy,” Neuroscience, vol. 135, no. 4, pp. 1241–1253, 2005.
- Michael J. O'Neill and Clemens James A., “Rodent Models of focal cerebral ischemia,” in Current Protocols in Neuroscience, chapter 9, unit 9.6, pp. 1–32, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2000.
- M. S. K. C. L. Roulston, R. M. Weston, and B. Jarrott, “Animal models of stroke for preclinical drug development: a comparative study of flavonols for cytoprotection,” in Translational Stroke Research, P. A. Lapchak and J. H. Zhang, Eds., Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2011.
- D. Virley, S. J. Hadingham, J. C. Roberts et al., “A new primate model of focal stroke: endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in the common marmoset,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 24–41, 2004.
- M. Hagerdal, F. A. Welsh, and M. M. Keykhah, “Protective effects of combinations of hypothermia and barbiturates in cerebral hypoxia in the rat,” Anesthesiology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 165–169, 1978.
- A. Bhardwaj, T. Brannan, and J. Weinberger, “Pentobarbital inhibits extracellular release of dopamine in the ischemic striatum,” Journal of Neural Transmission, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 111–117, 1990.
- C. D. Fütterer, M. H. Maurer, A. Schmitt, R. E. Feldmann, W. Kuschinsky, and K. F. Waschke, “Alterations in rat brain proteins after desflurane anesthesia,” Anesthesiology, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 302–308, 2004.
- H. Chen, Y. S. Song, and P. H. Chan, “Inhibition of NADPH oxidase is neuroprotective after ischemia-reperfusion,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1262–1272, 2009.
- R. M. Weston, N. M. Jones, B. Jarrott, and J. K. Callaway, “Inflammatory cell infiltration after endothelin-1-induced cerebral ischemia: histochemical and myeloperoxidase correlation with temporal changes in brain injury,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 100–114, 2007.
- J. Hur, P. Lee, M. J. Kim, Y. Kim, and Y. W. Cho, “Ischemia-activated microglia induces neuronal injury via activation of gp91phox NADPH oxidase,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 391, no. 3, pp. 1526–1530, 2010.
- J. M. Simons, B. A. 't Hart, T. R. A. M. Ip Vai Ching, H. Van Dijk, and R. P. Labadie, “Metabolic activation of natural phenols into selective oxidative burst agonists by activated human neurophils,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 251–258, 1990.
- E. Van den Worm, C. J. Beukelman, A. J. J. Van den Berg, B. H. Kroes, R. P. Labadie, and H. Van Dijk, “Effects of methoxylation of apocynin and analogs on the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production by stimulated human neutrophils,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 433, no. 2-3, pp. 225–230, 2001.
- S. Heumüller, S. Wind, E. Barbosa-Sicard et al., “Apocynin is not an inhibitor of vascular NADPH oxidases but an antioxidant,” Hypertension, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 211–217, 2008.
- J. Stolk, T. J. Hiltermann, J. H. Dijkman, and A. J. Verhoeven, “Characteristics of the inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation in neutrophils by apocynin, a methoxy-substituted catechol,” The American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 95–102, 1994.
- O. J. Dodd and D. B. Pearse, “Effect of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin on ischemia-reperfusion lung injury,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 279, no. 1, pp. H303–H312, 2000.
- M. Vejražka, R. Míček, and S. Štípek, “Apocynin inhibits NADPH oxidase in phagocytes but stimulates ROS production in non-phagocytic cells,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1722, no. 2, pp. 143–147, 2005.
- P. S. Green, A. J. Mendez, J. S. Jacob et al., “Neuronal expression of myeloperoxidase is increased in Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 724–733, 2004.
- C. Kleinschnitz, H. Grund, K. Wingler et al., “Post-stroke inhibition of induced NADPH Oxidase type 4 prevents oxidative stress and neurodegeneration,” PLoS Biology, vol. 8, no. 9, Article ID e1000479, 2010.
- H. Sheng, W. Yang, S. Fukuda et al., “Long-term neuroprotection from a potent redox-modulating metalloporphyrin in the rat,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 917–923, 2009.