Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Stroke Research and Treatment
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 646230, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/646230
Research Article

Do Improvements in Balance Relate to Improvements in Long-Distance Walking Function after Stroke?

1Department of Physical Therapy, University of Delaware, 540 South College Avenue, Newark, DE 19713, USA
2Graduate Program in Biomechanics and Movement Science, Newark, DE 19713, USA
3Delaware Clinical and Translational Research Accel Program, Newark, DE 19713, USA

Received 24 March 2014; Revised 4 June 2014; Accepted 8 June 2014; Published 10 July 2014

Academic Editor: Steve Kautz

Copyright © 2014 Louis N. Awad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. W. Bohannon, M. G. Horton, and J. B. Wikholm, “Importance of four variables of walking to patients with stroke,” International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 246–250, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. A. Combs, M. Van Puymbroeck, P. A. Altenburger, K. K. Miller, T. A. Dierks, and A. A. Schmid, “Is walking faster or walking farther more important to persons with chronic stroke?” Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 860–867, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. Dickstein, “Rehabilitation of gait speed after stroke: a critical review of intervention approaches,” Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 649–660, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. E. Mayo, S. Wood-Dauphinee, S. Ahmed et al., “Disablement following stroke,” Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 21, no. 5-6, pp. 258–268, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. J. Olney and C. Richards, “Hemiparetic gait following stroke. Part I: characteristics,” Gait & Posture, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 136–148, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. L. Richards, F. Malouin, and C. Dean, “Gait in stroke: assessment and rehabilitation,” Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 833–855, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. S. M. Ng, “Contribution of subjective balance confidence on functional mobility in subjects with chronic stroke,” Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 33, no. 23-24, pp. 2291–2298, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. S. M. Ng, “Balance ability, not muscle strength and exercise endurance, determines the performance of hemiparetic subjects on the timed-sit-to-stand test,” American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 497–504, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. L. Patterson, L. W. Forrester, M. M. Rodgers et al., “Determinants of walking function after stroke: differences by deficit severity,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 115–119, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. Carvalho, C. Willén, and K. S. Sunnerhagen, “Relationship between walking function and one-legged bicycling test in subjects in the later stage post-stroke,” Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 721–726, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. J. Eng, K. S. Chu, A. S. Dawson, C. M. Kim, and K. E. Hepburn, “Functional walk tests in individuals with stroke: relation to perceived exertion and myocardial exertion,” Stroke, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 756–761, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. S. Pohl, P. W. Duncan, S. Perera et al., “Influence of stroke-related impairments on performance in 6-minute walk test,” Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 439–444, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. A. Schmid, M. van Puymbroeck, P. A. Altenburger et al., “Balance and balance self-efficacy are associated with activity and participation after stroke: a cross-sectional study in people with chronic stroke,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 1101–1107, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. A. Schmid, M. van Puymbroeck, P. A. Altenburger, K. K. Miller, S. A. Combs, and S. J. Page, “Balance is associated with quality of life in chronic stroke,” Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 340–346, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. N. Awad, D. S. Reisman, T. M. Kesar, and S. A. Binder-Macleod, “Targeting paretic propulsion to improve post-stroke walking function: a preliminary study,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 840–848, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. G. D. Fulk, J. L. Echternach, L. Nof, and S. O'Sullivan, “Clinometric properties of the six-minute walk test in individuals undergoing rehabilitation poststroke,” Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 195–204, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Berg, S. Wood-Dauphinee, and J. I. Williams, “The balance scale: reliability assessment with elderly residents and patients with an acute stroke,” Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 27–36, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. M. Wrisley, G. F. Marchetti, D. K. Kuharsky, and S. L. Whitney, “Reliability, internal consistency, and validity of data obtained with the functional gait assessment,” Physical Therapy, vol. 84, no. 10, pp. 906–918, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. E. Powell and A. M. Myers, “The Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale,” The Journals of Gerontology A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. M28–M34, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J.-H. Lin, M.-J. Hsu, H.-W. Hsu, H.-C. Wu, and C.-L. Hsieh, “Psychometric comparisons of 3 functional ambulation measures for patients with stroke,” Stroke, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 2021–2025, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. U.-B. Flansbjer, J. Blom, and C. Brogårdh, “The reproducibility of Berg Balance Scale and the Single-leg Stance in chronic stroke and the relationship between the two tests,” PM & R, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 165–170, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. M. Botner, W. C. Miller, and J. J. Eng, “Measurement properties of the activitites-specific balance confidence scale among individuals with stroke,” Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 156–163, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. G. Bowden, A. L. Behrman, R. R. Neptune, C. M. Gregory, and S. A. Kautz, “Locomotor rehabilitation of individuals with chronic stroke: difference between responders and nonresponders,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 856–862, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Perry, M. Garrett, J. K. Gronley, and S. J. Mulroy, “Classification of walking handicap in the stroke population,” Stroke, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 982–989, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. M. Blennerhassett, W. Dite, E. R. Ramage, and M. E. Richmond, “Changes in balance and walking from stroke rehabilitation to the community: a follow-up observational study,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 93, no. 10, pp. 1782–1787, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus