Stroke Research and Treatment / 2015 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Protocol Variations and Six-Minute Walk Test Performance in Stroke Survivors: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

Table 2

Description of included studies.

Study
Year
Age (SD) yearsTime since stroke (SD)Number of participants
(male : female)
Disability scale
Score (SD)
Referenced ATS standards
Protocol described
Reporting score
Distance achieved (SD) meters

Ada et al.
[15] 2003
I = 66 (11)
C = 66 (11)
Months
I = 28 (17)
C = 26 (20)
27
19 : 08
SA-SIP
I = 12.1 (5.5)
C = 15.2 (5.2)
ATS = NR (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I = 296 (96)
C = 257 (113)

*Allet et al.
[16] 2009
67.56 (9.5)Days
41.84 (26.08)
25
NR
FIM total
100.84 (12.43)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = continuous circuit of 50 m circumference (1)
Total = 1
Using 4 pt. cane = 101.4 (54.08)
Using Nordic stick = 98.04 (51.28)
Using simple cane = 115.48 (54.99)

*Batcho et al.
[17] 2013
I = 57.97 (11.02)
DO = 53.25 (10.53)
Months
I = 37.7 (31.7)
DO = 26.25 (10.69)
44
30 : 14
SIAS
I = 56.5 (37–74)x
DO = 54.0 (37–73)x
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = continuous square path 52 m in total (1)
Total = 1
I = 243.6 (120.6)
DO = 256.8 (123.5)

Bassile et al.
[18] 2003
64.2#Years
0.5–6
5
02 : 03
MAS
5.2
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
339.61 (155.82)

*Billinger et al.
[19] 2012
61.2 (4.7)Days
68.6 (40.1)
10
06 : 04
FM lower
27.4 (8.8)
ATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = 100 ft (30.48 m) walkway (1)
Total = 2
304.1 (167.5)

Blennerhassett and Dite 
[20] 2004
I1 = 56.3 (10.5)
I2 = 53.9 (19.8)
Days
I1 = 50.1 (49.2)
I2 = 36.0 (25.1)
30
17 : 13
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I1 = 181 (85)
I2 = 183 (85)

*Blennerhassett et al.
[21] 2012
66 (49.3–72.0)xNR30
20 : 10
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = continuous rectangular track 86 m in total (1)
Total = 1
312 (170–463)x

Bowden et al.
[22] 2013
58.74 (12.97)Months
22.70 (16.38)
27
19 : 08
FM
23.1 (4)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
619.5 (290.8)

Brock et al.
[23] 2011
I1 = 61.3 (13.0)
I2 = 56.6 (15.8)
Days
I1 = 60.3 (24.0)
I2 = 63.6 (25.9)
26
19 : 07
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 12.5 m long including a purpose built ramp and step and thin foam mats (1)
Total = 1
I1 = 102.6 (64.5)
I2 = 78.5 (61.3)

Brogårdh et al. 
[24] 2012
I = 61.3 (8.5)
C = 63.9 (5.8)
Months
I = 37.4 (31.8)
C = 33.1 (29.2)
31
25 : 06
FIM
I1 = 83.1 (3.1)
I2 = 83.5 (3.2)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I = 305 (108)
C = 393 (115)

Brogårdh et al. 
[25] 2012
64 (NR)Months
42 (30)
50
41 : 09
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
303 (130)

Byun et al.
[26] 2011
58.9 (11.9)Months
9.6 (4.5)
30
19 : 11
K-MBI
53.6 (24.1)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
104 (96.4)

Carda et al.
[27] 2011
I1 = 62.2 (11.7)
I2 = 64.5 (12.5)
I3 = 59.6 (14.3)
Months
I1 = 46.9 (41.3)
I2 = 52.3 (43.8)
I3 = 43.9 (39.6)
69
34 : 35
FAC
I1 = 3.9 (0.9)
I2 = 4.0 (0.8)
I3 = 3.8 (0.6)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I1 = 176.2 (98.5)
I2 = 191.7 (98.6)
I3 = 195.7 (81)

Carda et al.
[28] 2012
63.9 (10.5)Days
1,273 (1,460)
62
43 : 19
FAC
3 (2–4)x
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
Without HFO = 146.1 (99.7)
With HFO = 169 (94.9)

Carroll et al.
[29] 2012
72.4 (12.3)Days
12.5 (6.25–34)x
50
21 : 29
BI
100 (90–100)x
ATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 1
158.6 (129.2)

*Carvalho et al.
[30] 2008
60 (4.1)Months
62 (33)
34
24 : 10
FM lower
30 (13–34)x
ATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = indoors and outdoors over a 30 m course (1)
Total = 2
In 365.2 (142.6)
Out 373.6 (150.8)

*Carvalho et al.
[31] 2013
59 (5.8)Months
53 (36)
41
31 : 10
FM lower
28 (13–34)x
ATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = 30 m walkway (1)
Total = 2
372 (139)

*Chanruengvanich et al.
[32] 2006
I = 62.83 (7.41)
C = 63.18 (7.13)
NR62
20 : 42
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = continuous rectangular path, total distance 30 m (1)
Total = 1
I = 391.99 (82.6)
C = 341.6 (89.97)

Da Silva et al.
[33] 2013
54 (9)Years
7.8#
12
06 : 06
FM
163.3#
ATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 1
274.2#

*Daly et al.
[34] 2006
I = 57.7 (11.9)
C = 63.6 (10.4)
Years
I = 3.6 (3.8)
C = 3.3 (2.1)
29
22 : 07
FM knee flex subscale
I = 4 (2)x
C = 3 (2)x
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = 30.5 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
I = 186.6 (75.6)
C = 128.3 (83.8)

*Daly et al.
[35] 2011
I = 59 (NR)
C = 62 (NR)
NR44
32 : 12
FIM loco/mob
I = 30 (2.75)x
C = 30 (8.50)x
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = 30.5 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
I = 530 (262.47)
C = 416 (305.83)

*Danielsson et al.
[36] 2011
59.7 (8.1)Years
8.5 (0.9)
31
22 : 09
FM lower
29 (12)x
ATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = 30 m walkway (1)
Total = 2
352 (136)

*Dean et al.
[37] 2001
62.7 (8.5)NR14
08 : 06
NRATS = No (published prior to ATS)
Walkway = 50 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
261.5 (128.4)

Donovan et al.
[38] 2008
61.3 (11.1)Months
46.5 (32.9)
30
21 : 09
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 3 environments: clinic (150 m walkway), outdoors and in mall (1)
Total = 1
Clinic = 244.4 (66.4)
Street = 248.5 (77.4)
Mall = 234.8 (66.5)

Duncan et al.
[39] 1998
I = 67.3 (9.6)
C = 67.8 (7.2)
Days
I = 66 (NR)
C = 56 (NR)
20
NR
FM lower
I = 21.7 (NR)
C = 23.2 (NR)
ATS = No (published prior to ATS)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I = 149.66 (NR)
C = 169.47 (NR)

Duncan et al.
[40] 2003
I = 68.5 (9)
C = 70.2 (11.4)
D = 74.6 (9.8)
Days
I = 77.5 (28.7)
C = 73.5 (27.1)
D = 84.0 (27.2)
100
56 : 44
FM lower
I = 24.1 (3.7)
C = 23.7 (3.5)
D = 26.0 (2.9)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I = 238.0 (103.9)
C = 215.6 (94.8)
D = 244.1 (88.6)

Duncan et al.
[41] 2011
I1 = 60.1 (12.3)
I2 = 63.3 (12.5)
I3 = 62.6 (13.3)
Days
I1 = 64.1 (8.3)
I2 = 64.2 (9.0)
I3 = 62.9 (8.0)
408
224 : 184
FM leg
I1 = 23.7 (6.7)
I2 = 24.8 (6.4)
I3 = 24.7 (6.3)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I1 = 124.1 (77.5)
I2 = 125.7 (81.8)
I3 = 126.3 (75.0)

*Eng et al.
[42] 2002
62.6 (8.5)Years
4.4 (3.0)
25
17 : 08
CM lower
8.9 (2.4)
ATS = No (published prior to ATS)
Walkway = continuous 42 m rectangular path (1)
Total = 1
267.7 (89.7)

*Eng et al.
[43] 2004
62.5 (8.6)Years
3.5 (2.0)
12
11 : 01
CM lower
9.4 (2.5)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = continuous 42 m rectangular path (1)
Total = 1
378.3 (123.1)

*Flansbjer et al.
[4] 2005
M = 59 (7)
F = 58 (5)
Months
M = 16 (5)
F = 18 (5)
50
38 : 12
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 30 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
T1 = 384 (132)
T2 = 398 (136)

*Flansbjer et al.
[44] 2008
I = 61 (5)
C = 60 (5)
Months
I = 18.9 (7.9)
C = 20.0 (11.6)
24
14 : 10
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 30 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
I = 228 (137)
C = 234 (134)

*Forsberg and Nilsagård 
[45] 2013
68.1 (11.2)Years
4.6 (5.5)
67
42 : 25
RMI
37 (35–39)x
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = 30 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
247 (160–342)x

Fritz et al.
[46] 2013
I = 67.6 (9.3)
C = 64.5 (10.1)
Years
I = 2.5 (2.6)
C = 3.6 (3.2)
28
NR
FM
I = 68.5 (21.7)
C = 65.6 (18.0)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I = 285.4 (158.7)
C = 263.2 (178.5)

*Fulk et al.
[47] 2008
66.3 (14.3)Days
33.7 (17.8)
37
20 : 17
FIM loco
5 (2–7)x
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = 150 feet (45.72 m) at one site, 250 feet (76.20 m) at another two sites (1)
Total = 1
T1 = 144.2 (136.3)
T2 = 160.9 (146.3)

*Fulk et al.
[48] 2010
65.7 (11.9)Months
42.1 (36.1)
19
NR
FM lower
28.7 (5.7)
ATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = continuous oval course 30 m in circumference (1)
Total = 2
348.6 (144)

Geroin et al.
[49] 2011
I1 = 63.6 (6.7) 
I2 = 63.3 (6.4)
I3 = 61.1 (6.3)
Months
I1 = 25.7 (6.0)
I2 = 26.7 (5.1)
I3 = 26.9 (5.8)
30
23 : 07
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I1 = 162.9 (52.1)
I2 = 156.1 (62.9)
I3 = 116.8 (75.2)

Gerrits et al.
[50] 2009
54 (10)Months
22 (18)
18
11 : 07
FAC
4.6 (SEM = 0.1)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
186 (SEM = 25.9)

*Gjellesvik et al.
[51] 2012
48.9 (10.6)Years
7.2 (7.5)
8
04 : 04
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 50 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
474 (91)

Globas et al.
[52] 2012
I = 68.6 (6.7)
C = 68.7 (6.1)
Months
I = 60.2 (46.6)
C = 70.0 (67.4)
36
29 : 07
BI
I = 91.7 (9.7)
C = 88.3 (9.6)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I = 274.4 (113.0)
C = 261.2 (177.0)

Gordon et al.
[53] 2013
I = 63.4 (9.4)
C = 64.9 (11.1)
Months
I = 12.8 (3.6)
C = 11.8 (3.6)
128
58 : 70
BI
I = 94.3 (8.1)
C = 91.5 (9.7)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I = 247.1 (141.5)
C = 228.0 (138.7)

Hidler et al.
[54] 2009
I = 59.9 (11.3)
C = 54.6 (9.4)
Days
I = 110.9 (62.5)
C = 138.9 (60.9)
63
39 : 24
RMI
I = 9.5 (0.5)
C = 11.3 (0.6)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I = 118.2 (13.2)
C = 134.33 (14.1)

Hinson et al.
[55] 2007
Bl = 62 (8)
Wh = 66 (9)
Months
Bl = 47 (57)
Wh = 44 (54)
118
74 : 44
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
Bl = 214 (108)
Wh = 201 (123)

*Hoang et al.
[56] 2012
64.6 (11.2)Months
40 (42.2)
32
21 : 11
BI
89.7 (9.9)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = continuous 123 m circuit (1)
Total = 1
201.8 (110.5)

Hornby et al.
[57] 2008
I1 = 57 (10)
I2 = 57 (11)
Months
I1 = 50 (51)
I2 = 73 (87)
48
30 : 18
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I1 = 170 (86)
I2 = 170 (86)

Hwang et al.
[58] 2013
1 = 54.6 (9.2) 
2 = 54.9 (12.9)
Months
1 = 35.1 (18.8)
2 = 36.7 (19.0)
47
27 : 20
DGI
1 = 20.5 (2.7)
2 = 15.8 (4.8)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
1 = 392.4 (68.9)
2 = 268.6 (74.5)

*Iosa et al.
[59] 2012
62.7 (14.7)Days
101 (36)
12
08 : 04
BI
70 (50–88)x
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = 20 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
226 (111)

Janssen et al.
[60] 2008
I1 = 54.2 (10.7)
I2 = 55.3 (10.4)
Months
I1 = 12.3 (5.4)
I2 = 18.3 (9.9)
12
06 : 06
FAC
I1 = 4.5 (0.5)
I2 = 4.7 (0.5)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I1 = 160.3 (134.4)
I2 = 187.3 (92.0)

Jin et al.
[61] 2012
I = 57 (6)
C = 56 (7)
Months
I = 18.5 (5.2)
C = 17.9 (4.8)
133
94 : 39
RMI
I = 10.3 (1.4)
C = 10.2 (1.4)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I = 212.0 (63.5)
C = 212.2 (50.1)

*Kang et al.
[62] 2012
I1 = 55.9 (6.5)
I2 = 56.3 (7.6)
C = 56.1 (7.8)
Months
I1 = 14.1 (4.4)
I2 = 13.5 (4.0)
C = 15.1 (7.4)
30
16 : 14
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = continuous 50 m track (1)
Total = 1
I1 = 240.3 (20.9)
I2 = 237.7 (25.4)
C = 239.1 (22.0)

Kelley et al.
[63] 2013
65.75 (9.48)Years
2.87 (NR)
20
13 : 07
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
51.61 (26.15)

*Kelly et al.
[1] 2003
66 (48–73)xDays
30 (19–39)x
17
13 : 04
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 20 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
301.8 (202.8–384.9)x

*Kim et al.
[64] 2014
62.2 (11.7)Days
32.6 (24.7)
55
37 : 18
KM-BI
74 (17.6)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = 50 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
262.8 (120.7)

*Kluding and Gajewski 
[65] 2009
57.6 (11.0)Months
45.4 (42.8)
26
14 : 12
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 100 feet (30.48 m) walkway (1)
Total = 1
202.4 (134.3)

Kluding et al.
[66] 2011
63.7 (9.1)Months
50.4 (37.9)
9
05 : 04
FM
87.7 (29.1)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
760 (696.3)

Kuys et al.
[67] 2011
I = 63 (14)
C = 72 (17)
Days
I = 52 (32)
C = 49 (30)
30
12 : 18
Modified BI
I = 76 (18)
C = 80 (9)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I = 177 (130)
C = 219 (147)

Lam et al.
[68] 2010
66.8 (SEM = 1.1)Months
59.0 (SEM = 9.28)
52
34 : 18
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
253.25 (SEM = 19.38)

*Langhammer et al.
[69] 2006
74 (NR)NR57
31 : 26
MAS walk
3.5 (2.5)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = 85 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
234 (208)

*Langhammer et al.
[70] 2008
I1 = 76.0 (12.7)
I2 = 72.0 (13.6)
NR75
43 : 32
BI
I1 = 56.6 (38.9)
I2 = 66.0 (39.0)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = 85 m walkway in hospital and different institutions including patients’ homes or outdoors (1)
Total = 1
I1 = 187.9 (211.1)
I2 = 221.5 (197.8)

*Langhammer and Stanghelle 
[71] 2010
I1 = 74.0 (13.3)
I2 = 75.0 (10.4)
Days
I1 = 419 (1,034)
I2 = 349 (820)
39
16 : 23
MAS i3
I1 = 5.4 (NR)
I2 = 5.3 (NR)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = 85 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
I1 = 277.7 (139.9)
I2 = 299.4 (159.3)

Lee et al.
[72] 2005
69 (11)Months
43 (32)
11
09 : 02
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
324.4 (173.1)

Lee et al.
[73] 2008
I1 = 67.2 (10.6)
I2 = 62.9 (9.3)
I3 = 60.5 (10.6)
C = 65.3 (6.0)
Months
I1 = 52.4 (2.2)
I2 = 44.2 (63.9)
I3 = 63.2 (40.5)
C = 65.8 (42.3)
48
28 : 20
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I1 = 249.3 (158.3)
I2 = 239.8 (141.0)
I3 = 266.0 (123.5)
C = 273.2 (162.1)

Lord et al.
[74] 2008
I1 = 64.2 (14.8)
I2 = 60.7 (17.6)
Days
I1 = 83.1 (29.8)
I2 = 80.3 (33.0)
30
18 : 12
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I1 = 125.1 (71.0)
I2 = 142.3 (89.4)

*MacKay-Lyons et al.
[75] 2013
I1 = 61.5 (15.4)
I2 = 59.0 (12.7)
Days
I1 = 23.3 (5.7)
I2 = 23.1 (4.4)
50
29 : 21
CM
I1 = 4.8 (1.5)
I2 = 4.9 (1.2)
ATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = continuous 100 m walkway (1)
Total = 2
I1 = 188.7 (82.3)
I2 = 195.5 (77.7)

Macko et al.
[76] 2005
I = 63 (10)
C = 64 (8)
Months
I = 35 (29)
C = 39 (59)
61
43 : 18
RMI
I = 11.3 (0.4)
C = 11.7 (0.4)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I = 232.0 (22.3)
C = 258.5 (33.2)

Macko et al.
[77] 2008
70 (1.7)Months
56 (19)
20
09 : 11
BI
74.8 (4)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
T1 = 116 (15)
T2 = 113 (14)

*Maeda et al.
[78] 2009
45 (7)Months
19 (9)
18
15 : 03
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 30 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
AFO = 174 (77)
W/O AFO = 140 (69)

*Marsden et al.
[79] 2010
I = 70.0 (9.0)
C = 73.1 (9.3)
Months
I = 37.2 (26.7)
C = 39.0 (23.6)
25
19 : 06
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 20 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
I = 301.6 (121.5)
C = 349.1 (124.2)

Mayo et al.
[80] 2013
I1 = 67.7 (14.4)
I2 = 67.8 (12.3)
Days
I1 = 265.4 (131.8)
I2 = 252.0 (165.3)
87
60 : 27
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I1 = 323.4 (19.5)
I2 = 321.6 (17.1)

Mehrholz et al.
[81] 2006
54#Weeks
Range: 3–12
6
05 : 01
FAC
2 (0)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
96.7 (33.4)

Mehrholz et al.
[82] 2007
62.8 (10.2)Days
30.6 (15.5)
55
40 : 15
RMI
2.51 (1.62)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
15.9 (34.3)

*Michael et al.
[83] 2009
71 (NR)Years
7.5 (NR)
10
07 : 03
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 100 feet (30.48 m) walkway (1)
Total = 1
256 (33.5)

Miklitsch et al.
[84] 2013
I = 58 (11)
C = 57 (12)
Months
I = 9.8 (19.1)
C = 9.1 (20.8)
40
25 : 15
BI
I = 55 (45–80)x
C = 53 (45–75)x
ATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 1
I = 261 (158)
C = 200 (129)

*Moriello et al.
[85] 2011
67 (12.3)Months
3.9 (1.6)
63
43 : 20
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 15 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
277 (136)

Mudge et al.
[86] 2009
I = 76 (39–89)x
C = 71 (44–86)x
Years
I = 3.33 (0.6–13.3)x
C = 5.8 (0.5–18.7)x
58
32 : 26
RMI
I = 14 (6.1–15)x
C = 13.5 (9–15)x
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I = 263 (110)
C = 201 (99)

Mudge and Stott 
[87] 2009
67.4 (12.5)Months
66 (61)
49
29 : 20
RMI
13 (6–15)x
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
230 (121)

*Muren et al.
[88] 2008
58 (9)Months
60 (27)
30
17 : 13
NRATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = 30 m walkway (1)
Total = 2
353 (137)

Murtezani et al.
[89] 2009
49.8 (17.4)NR44
26 : 18
BI
68 (20.5)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
336.6 (82.2)

*Ng and Hui-Chan 
[90] 2005
61.1 (6.8)Years
5.6 (3.3)
11
06 : 05
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 33 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
202.3 (88)

*Ng and Hui-Chan 
[91] 2009
I1 = 56.5 (8.2)
I2 = 57.8 (7.3)
I3 = 56.9 (8.6)
C = 55.5 (8.0)
Years
I1 = 4.9 (3.9)
I2 = 4.7 (2.8)
I3 = 4.3 (3.8)
C = 5.0 (3.0)
109
85 : 24
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 33 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
I1 = 202.6 (81.8)
I2 = 191.9 (89.4)
I3 = 175.9 (81.9)
C = 195.6 (75.9)

*Ng et al.
[8] 2011
58.5 (6.1)Years
7.0 (6.5)
26
13 : 13
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = performed on 10, 20, and 30 m walkways turning towards affected and nonaffected sides separately (1)
Total = 1
1 = 227.32 (79.07)
2 = 252.2 (95.31)
3 = 265.47 (94.16)
4 = 228.8 (84.20)
5 = 255.79 (92.14)
6 = 269.35 (107.75)

*Ng and Hui-Chan 
[92] 2012
57.4 (7.8)Years
5.2 (3.7)
62
51 : 11
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 33 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
183.7 (84.4)

Nolan et al.
[93] 2009
53.44 (11.50)Months
54.89 (36.98)
18
14 : 04
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
With AFO = 228.54 (103.93)
Without AFO = 197.49 (104.13)

*Olawale et al.
[94] 2011
I1 = 56.8 (6.4)
I2 = 56.8 (8.3)
C = 57.2 (5.9)
Months
I1 = 10.2 (6.9)
I2 = 10.7 (6.8)
C = 10.3 (5.9)
60
34 : 26
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 15 × 10 m rectangular course (1)
Total = 1
I1 = 111.43 (50.96)
I2 = 116.31 (49.39)
C = 138.85 (65.33)

Ouellette et al.
[95] 2004
I = 65.8 (2.5)
C = 66.1 (2.1)
Months
I = 31.8 (3.3)
C = 25.6 (4.0)
42
28 : 14
LLFDI
I = 52.7 (2.3)
C = 55.6 (2.2)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I = 217.1 (30.5)
C = 221.0 (34.0)

*Outermans et al.
[96] 2010
I1 = 56.8 (8.6)
I2 = 56.3 (8.6)
Days
I1 = 22.5 (8.2)
I2 = 23.5 (7.8)
43
36 : 07
NRATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = 50 m walkway (1)
Total = 2
I = 459.8 (145.8)
I2 = 401.0 (131.5)

*Ovando et al.
[97] 2011
53 (17)Months
18 (11)
8
06 : 02
FM
25 (4.5)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = 30 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
400.9 (136.0)

Pang et al.
[98] 2005
I = 65.8 (9.1)
C = 64.7 (8.4)
Years
I = 5.2 (5.0)
C = 5.1 (3.6)
63
37 : 26
NRATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 1
I = 328.1 (143.5)
C = 304.1 (123.8)

*Park et al.
[99] 2011
I = 59.38 (8.46)
C = 56.92 (7.79)
Months
I = 28.08 (12.59)
C = 28.67 (17.96)
25
12 : 13
WAQ
I = 46.38 (10.38)
C = 48.75 (10.15)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = 20 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
I = 166.23 (58.29)
C = 151.83 (69.95)

*Patterson et al.
[100] 2007
64 (10)Months
48 (59)
74
43 : 31
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 30.5 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
216 (120)

*Patterson et al.
[101] 2008
64 (8)Months
20.55 (64.0)
39
25 : 14
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 30.5 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
227 (105)

*Peurala et al.
[102] 2005
I1 = 53.3 (8.9)
I2 = 51.2 (7.9)
I3 = 52.3 (6.8)
Years
I1 = 2.6 (2.4)
I2 = 2.4 (2.6)
I3 = 4.0 (5.8)
45
37 : 08
FIM
I1 = 99.2 (12.8)
I2 = 106.9 (10)
I3 = 100.7 (11.4)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = 54 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
I1 = 127.1 (87.2)
I2 = 152.3 (89.6)
I3 = 111.8 (57.3)

*Pohl et al.
[12] 2002
72.1 (10.2)Days
73.3 (26.8)
72
40 : 32
FM lower
24 (3.8)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = 100 feet (30.48 m) walkway (1)
Total = 1
215.8 (91.6)

Polese et al.
[103] 2013
56.4 (12.5)Months
64.8 (53.6)
98
54 : 44
NRATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 1
356.6 (132.2)

*Pradon et al.
[104] 2013
53.3 (13.7)Months
16 (8)
24
12 : 12
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 30 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
273.8 (173.4)

Rabadi et al.
[105] 2008
I1 = 75.00 (10.58)
I2 = 73.58 (13.02)
Days
I1 = 16.36 (15.70)
I2 = 14.10 (11.23)
116
68 : 48
FIM motor
I1 = 25.93 (12.41)
I2 = 25.93 (11.78)
ATS = No (0) 
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I1 = 26.69 (48.77)
I2 = 29.16 (38.56)

Rand et al.
[106] 2009
66.5 (9.6)Years
2.9 (2.4)
40
13 : 27
NRATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 1
318.8 (78.6)

Ryan et al.
[107] 2011
63 (1)Months
39 (7)
70
39 : 31
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
633 (46)

Ryan et al.
[108] 2011
I = 62.8 (10.3)
C = 60.7 (12.8)
Days
I = 21.5 (8.7)
C = 19.7 (16.8)
44
35 : 09
CM
I = 4.2 (1.1)
C = 4.1 (1)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I = 190 (176)
C = 270 (236)

*Salbach et al.
[109] 2004
I1 = 71 (12)
I2 = 73 (8)
Days
I1 = 239 (83)
I2 = 217 (73)
91
56 : 35
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 20 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
I1 = 209 (126)
I2 = 204 (131)

Salbach et al.
[110] 2014
71.1 (9.7)Years
2.0 (1.1)
16
14 : 02
CM leg
5 (1.4)
ATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 1
254.9 (180.9)

*Schmid et al.
[111] 2012
64.06 (8.78)Months
52.00 (42.14)
77
58 : 19
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 30 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
269.75 (131.06)

Severinsen et al.
[112] 2011
68 (9)Months
18 (6)
48
35 : 13
FM
68 (25)
ATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 1
291 (171)

*Sibley et al.
[113] 2008
68.1 (12)Days
52.4 (13.6)
26
16 : 10
FIM
107.1 (10.2)
ATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = 30 m walkway (1)
Total = 2
343.6 (107.3)

Simpson et al.
[114] 2011
67.6 (9.9)NR80
58 : 22
NRATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 1
275.9 (141.8)

*Singh et al.
[115] 2013
I = 65.4 (9.8)
C = 67.0 (8.4)
Months
I = 40.5 (41.8)
C = 34.9 (23.6)
28
16 : 12
BI
I = 87.00 (15.45)
C = 92.31 (12.69)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = 30 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
I = 162.40 (78.97)
C = 209.92 (176.53)

Stookey et al.
[116] 2013
61.2 (8.4)NR23
11 : 12
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
T1 = 278 (123.2)
T2 = 307.7 (142.0)
T3 = 305.1 (138.3)

*Stookey et al.
[117] 2014
61.5 (9.8)NR43
30 : 13
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = 100 ft (30.48 m) walkway (1)
Total = 1
242 (115)

*Stuart et al.
[118] 2009
I = 66.8 (1.4)
C = 70.0 (1.7)
Years
I = 4.2 (0.8)
C = 3.5 (0.5)
78
54 : 24
BI
I = 79.5 (2.6)
C = 85.4 (2.0)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = 10 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
I = 184.0 (11.8)
C = 194.4 (9.2)

*Sullivan et al.
[119] 2007
I1 = 60.6 (13.7)
I2 = 63.4 (8.6)
I3 = 58.2 (15.2)
I4 = 61.4 (11.2)
Months
I1 = 27.5 (16.1)
I2 = 28.4 (19.0)
I3 = 23.1 (15.0)
I4 = 20.7 (14.4)
80
45 : 35
FM lower
I1 = 24.5 (5.5)
I2 = 24.4 (4.5)
I3 = 24.2 (4.0)
I4 = 22.1 (6.3)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = continuous, 18 m oval walkway (1)
Total = 1
I1 = 189.3 (99.9)
I2 = 170.0 (115.2)
I3 = 187.6 (99.9)
I4 = 190.0 (135.4)

*Tang et al.
[120] 2006
64.6 (14.4)Days
50.3 (17)
36
14 : 22
CM
5.1 (1)
ATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = 30 m walkway (1)
Total = 2
341.6 (107.9)

*Tang et al.
[121] 2009
I = 64.7 (SEM = 3.6)
C = 65.7 (SEM = 2.3)
Days
I = 19.1 (SEM = 3.8)
C = 14.9 (SEM = 2.3)
36
NR
FIM
I = 84.0 (SEM = 4.1)
C = 83.9 (SEM = 4.2)
ATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = 30 m walkway (1)
Total = 2
I = 207.0 (46.6)
C = 198.9 (40.2)

Tanne et al.
[122] 2008
I = 61 (10)
C = 58 (5)
Days
I = 65 (37)
C = 93 (60)
48
43 : 05
FIM
I = 123 (5)
C = 122 (5)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I = 444 (90)
C = 438 (101)

Toledano-Zarhi et al.
[123] 2011
I = 65 (10)
C = 65 (12)
Days
I = 11 (5)
C = 11 (4)
28
21 : 07
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I = 415.9 (172.5)
C = 459.3 (116.3)

*Tseng and Kluding 
[124] 2009
56.8 (11.8)Months
47.6 (51.2)
9
02 : 07
FM
79.4 (32.8)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = 100 feet (30.48 m) walkway (1)
Total = 1
295.5 (171.4)

*van Bloemendaal et al.
[125] 2012
58.8 (9.8)Months
24.7 (25.3)
75
47 : 28
NRATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = 30 m walkway (1)
Total = 2
472.5 (156.1)

van de Port et al.
[126] 2012
I = 56 (10)
C = 58 (10)
Days
I = 91 (42)
C = 103 (51)
250
162 : 88
RMI
I = 12.67 (1.58)
C = 12.35 (2.00)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
I = 339 (120)
C = 306 (135)

*Verheijde et al.
[127] 2013
70 (13)Days
52 (87)
43
33 : 10
LEFS
33 (18)
ATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = 33 m walkway (1)
Total = 2
240 (130)

*Verma et al.
[128] 2011
I = 53.27 (8.53)
C = 55.07 (6.80)
Weeks
6.3 (3.2)
30
22 : 08
BI
I = 60 (9.82)
C = 53 (16.98)
ATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = 50 m walkway (1)
Total = 2
I = 115.2 (43.30)
C = 96.67 (64.23)

*Westlake and Patten 
[129] 2009
I1 = 58.6 (16.9)
I2 = 55.1 (13.6)
Months
I1 = 43.8 (26.8)
I2 = 36.8 (20.3)
16
13 : 03
FM lower
I1 = 23.0 (4.3)
I2 = 21.4 (5.1)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = 39 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
I1 = 267.3 (187.2)
I2 = 234.3 (141.2)

Wevers et al.
[130] 2011
60.7 (10.9)Days
266 (38)
27
21 : 06
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = outdoor 30 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
1 = 408 (132)
2 = 417 (139)
3 = 413 (127)
4 = 422 (132)

White et al.
[131] 2013
65.76 (11.01)Years
2.11 (1.76)
21
16 : 05
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
377.82 (176.19)

Wing et al.
[132] 2008
60.2 (14.1)Months
40.9 (29.1)
35
21 : 14
FM motor
31.8 (SEM = 3.2)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
228.6 (SEM = 22.3)

*Yang et al.
[133] 2006
I = 56.8 (10.2)
C = 60.0 (10.4)
Months
I = 62.7 (27.4)
C = 64.0 (40.4)
48
32 : 16
NRATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = 25 m walkway (1)
Total = 2
I = 352.3 (71.7)
C = 335.0 (79.6)

*Yang et al.
[134] 2014
I1 = 53.9 (10.5)
I2 = 54.5 (8.0)
Months
I1 = 11.1 (8.1)
I2 = 11.1 (9.7)
30
22 : 08
BI
I1 = 17.4 (2.2)
I2 = 16.5 (3.8)
ATS = No (0)
Walkway = 10 m walkway (1)
Total = 1
I1 = 216.4 (107.4)
I2 = 193.1 (127.3)

Yiu et al.
[135] 2012
67.41 (10.13)Days
96.9 (69.0)
98
71 : 27
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 0
267.65 (139.53)

*Zalewski and Dvorak 
[136] 2011
71.3 (9.5)NR17
14 : 03
NRATS = No (0)
Walkway = continuous 200 m track (1)
Total = 1
258.5 (146.0)

Zedlitz et al.
[137] 2012
I1 = 54.8 (9.1)
I2 = 55.6 (8.8)
Years
I1 = 4.4 (4.2)
I2 = 3.3 (3.9)
83
43 : 40
MI
I1 = 90.2 (15.0)
I2 = 90.1 (12.1)
ATS = Yes (1)
Walkway = NR (0)
Total = 1
I1 = 438 (123)
I2 = 437 (107)

Included in meta-analysis; converted from feet to meters; calculated from individual data; median (IQR); AFO = ankle-foot orthoses; ATS = American Thoracic Society; BI = Barthel Index; C = control; CM = Chedoke-McMaster; DGI = Dynamic Gait Index; DO = Drop Out group; FAC = Functional Ambulation Category; FIM = Functional Independence Measure; FM = Fugl-Meyer; HFO = hip flexor orthoses; I = intervention; K-MBI = Korean Modified-Barthel Index; LEFS = Lower Extremity Functional Scale; LLFDI = Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument; MAS = Motor Assessment Scale; MI = Motricity Index; NR = not reported; SA-SIP = Stroke Adapted Sickness Impact Profile; SEM = Standard Error of the Mean; SIAS = Stroke Impairment Assessment Set; WAQ = Walking Ability Questionnaire.

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