Table 1: Data extraction items: characteristics of trial design, intervention dose, risk of bias, and other methodological features.

Trial designIntervention doseRisk of bias

Quality ItemsBased on MRC guidelines
(1) Trial registered? †‡
(2) Committee oversee of trial? †‡
(3) Hypothesis stated? ‡
(4) Trial phase reported?
(5) Biological rationale of intervention included?
(6) Treatment compliance measured? †
(7) Actual treatment participants received measured & reported?
(8) Adverse events recorded? †
(9) Single- or multi-site trial?
(10) Primary outcome specified? †
Based on TIDIER guidelines§
(1) Intervention dose justified?
(2) Dose schedule reported sufficient for replication?
(3) Dose intensity reported?
Extracted from Cochrane reviews
(1) Sequence generation adequate?
(2) Allocation concealment adequate?
(3) Risk of detection bias addressed? ||

Trial Methods(1) Purpose of study
(2) Type of comparison group
(3) Was the trial international?
(4) Sample size
(5) Use of stratification
(6) Days post-stroke at baseline
(7) Was intervention piloted (if not a pilot study)? †
(8) Description of intervention components
(9) Use of device in intervention
(1) Individual or group treatment?
(2) Individually tailored dose?
(3) Dose progression?
(4) Dose schedule: session length (minutes), sessions per day & per week, duration (weeks)
(5) Dose matched between groups?
(1) What was primary outcome? #
(2) Positive trial? #
(3) Number of outcome measures
(4) List of outcome measures

Note. Based on Medical Research Council guidelines for developing and evaluating complex interventions [13].
†If authors did not report these details, this was recorded as "no" in data extraction.
‡Based on best practice methods but not stated in Medical Research Council guidelines.
§TIDieR guidelines [12].
| |Reported in Cochrane review as "Blinding all outcomes", "Blinding: performance and detection bias", or "Blinding: outcome assessors".
#When no primary outcome was specified by authors, the outcome most closely matching the purpose of the trial was nominated by data extractors.
Comparison group categories: usual care, other active intervention, waitlist, sham intervention, or attention control.
Dose intensity: prespecified treatment target (i.e., the amount of physical or mental work) that participants attempted to reach in a given session (either uniform for all participants or individually tailored) [15].
Dose schedule: session length (minutes), number of sessions per day, number of sessions per week, duration of intervention (weeks), and total number of sessions.
Positive trial: a significant difference between groups on the primary outcome after intervention, in favour of the intervention group [1].
Sites: single site= hospital inpatient-based intervention conducted at a single site. Multi-site= inpatient based intervention conducted at 2 or more sites. Multi-country= studies conducted in more than one country.
Trial phase: research phase of randomised controlled trial—development, feasibility or piloting, and evaluation—based on the Medical Research Council Guidelines for developing and evaluating complex interventions [13].