Stroke Research and Treatment / 2021 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

The Modifiable Risk Factors of Uncontrolled Hypertension in Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Table 1

Study characteristics.

First author (year)Type of studyPeriod of researchTotal subjectTotal casesRisk of factorOR/RRCI(95%)Impact

Chen et al. (2018) [14]CohortNE301166Medication nonadherence2.8541.357-6.005Uncontrolled BP
Vilaubi et al. (2018)CohortJanuary 2004-May 2005438269Guideline nonadherence1.661.02-2.68

Sarfo et al. (2016) [25]Retrospective observational studyJanuary 2012-June 2014580178Stage of hypertension1.311.17-1.47Uncontrolled BP
Use of antihypertension1.31.06-1.60

Nidhinandana et al. (2014) [26]Retrospective observational studyFebruary 2010-January 2011558349Diabetes mellitus0.180.11-0.29Uncontrolled BP
Stage 1 of HT0.30.15-0.59
Stage 2 of HT0.240.12-0.29
Use of antihypertension0.530.33-0.85

Dave et al. (2013) [16]Case control2004-200726631158BP medications nonadherence2.451.738-3.454Uncontrolled SBP
Age >55 years old1.6661.376-2.017
African-American race1.5581.272-1.908
Triglycerides (moderate risk)1.491.164-1.907
Blood glucose2.1071.171-3.791
607Age >55 years old0.4610.367-0.579Uncontrolled DBP
African-American race2.1731.708-2.765
Gender (male)1.9531.543-2.472
BP medications nonadherence2.2421.580-3.183
History of atrial fibrillation0.4770.242-0.938
Smoker1.3761.029-1.842

Bhatt et al. (2016) [17]CohortJanuary 2003-October 2007300185587Atrial fibrillation1.871.59-2.21Uncontrolled SBP

Ofedal et al. (2018)CohortSeptember 2010-August 2015385104Age2.221.27-3.89Uncontrolled BP
BMI1.141.08-1.20
Obesity2.651.59-4.4
Pulse wave velocity1.391.21-1.159
Carotid artery plaque52.06-12.15
Metabolic syndrome2.061.25-3.42
Diabetes2.341.21-4.53
Number of antihypertensive drug1.831.46-2.30
HDL cholesterol0.510.31-0.84
Triglycerides1.451.14-1.86
Fasting blood glucose1.261.07-1.49
HbA1c1.471.08-2.01

NE: not explained; BP: blood pressure; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure.