Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 749736, 13 pages
Research Article

The Use of Th in HTR: State of the Art and Implementation in Th/Pu Fuel Cycles

1Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering (DIMNP), University of Pisa, CIRTEN, Largo L. Lazzarino No. 2, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2Energy and Environmental Conditioning Department (DIPTEM), University of Genova, Via all'Opera Pia No. 15/a, 16145 Genova, Italy
3Accident Analysis Division (FWSS), Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), P.O. Box 51 01 19, 01314 Dresden, Germany
4Department of Nuclear Engineering , Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, 84105 Beer Sheva, Israel

Received 28 March 2009; Accepted 1 September 2009

Academic Editor: Jim Kuijper

Copyright © 2009 Guido Mazzini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. International Atomic Energy Agency, “Thorium based fuel options for the generation of electricity,” IAEA-TECDOC-1155, May 2000.
  2. M. Benedict, T. H. Pigford, and H. W. Levi, Nuclear Chemical Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1981.
  4. N. Cerullo, D. Bufalino, G. Forasassi, G. Lomonaco, P. Rocchi, and V. Romanello, “An additional performance of HTRS: the waste radiotoxicity minimisation,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, vol. 115, no. 1–4, pp. 122–125, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. N. Cerullo, D. Bufalino, G. Forasassi, G. Lomonaco, P. Rocchi, and V. Romanello, “The capabilities of htrs to burn actinides and to optimize plutonium exploitation,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE '04), vol. 1, pp. 495–501, Arlington, Va, USA, April 2004. View at Scopus
  6. Thorium Report Committee, “Thorium as an energy source—Opportunities for Norway,” January 2008,
  7. International Atomic Energy Agency, “Potential of thorium based fuel cycles to constraint plutonium and reduce long lived waste toxicity,” IAEA-TECDOC-1349, April 2003.
  8. W. Chernock and K. E. Horton, “Status of liquid metal cooled fast reactor development in the USA,” IAEA-TECDOC-791, Vienna, 1995.
  9. International Atomic Energy Agency, “Thorium fuel utilization: options and trends,” IAEA-TECDOC-1319, November 2002.
  10. M. W. Rosenthal, P. W. Haubenreich, and R. B. Brigge, “The development status of Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor,” OAK Ridge National Laboratory, August 1972.
  11. L. Mathieu, D. Heuer, E. Merle-Lucotte et al., “Possible configurations for the thorium molten salt reactor and advantages of the fast nonmoderated version,” Nuclear Science & Engineering, vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 78–89, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  12. H. J. Rütten and K. A. Haas, “Research on the incineration of plutonium in a modular HTR using thorium-based fuel,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol. 195, no. 3, pp. 353–360, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. Chang, Y. Yang, X. Jing, and Y. Xu, “Thorium-based fuel cycles in the modular high temperature reactor,” Tsinghua Science and Technology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 731–738, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. Mulder and E. Teuchert, “Characteristics of a different fuel cycle in a PBMR-400 for burning reactor grade plutonium,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol. 238, no. 11, pp. 2893–2897, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. C. Kuijper, E. Bomboni, N. Cerullo et al., “Pu and MA management in thermal HTGRs—impact at fuel, reactor and fuel cycle levels,” in Proceedings of the 4th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor (HTR '08), Washington, DC, USA, September 2008.
  16. H. J. Rütten and K. A. Haas, “Incineration of LWR-Plutonium (1. Generation and 2. Generation) in a Modular HTR using Thorium-based Fuel,” HTR-N-02/05-D-3.2.2, 2004.
  17. E. Bomboni, N. Cerullo, and G. Lomonaco, “EPEME, Error in PEbble Modelling Evaluation code,” NT-009(2008), Department of Mechanics, Nuclear and Production Engineering (DIMNP), Pisa, Italy, 2008.
  18. X-5 Monte Carlo Team, “MCNP—a general Monte Carlo N-particle transport code,” Version 5, October 2005.
  19. O. Cabellos, “Processing of the JEFF-3.1 cross section library into a continuous energy Monte Carlo radiation transport and criticality data library,” OECD NEA Data Bank, May 2006, NEA/NSC/DOC(2006)18,
  20. C. Pohl, “Additional calculations for fuel compositions of PuO2 and ThO2 in the PBMR-PUMA pebble bed high temperature reactor,” PUMA, Work Package 1, Deliverable D123, August 2009.
  21. E. Fridman, E. Shwageraus, and A. Galperin, “Implementation of multi-group cross-section methodology in BGCore MC-depletion code,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Physics of Reactors (PHYSOR '08), Interlaken, Switzerland, September 2008.