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Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 928406, 12 pages
Research Article

Numerical Simulation of Water-Based Alumina Nanofluid in Subchannel Geometry

1School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71348-51154, Iran
2Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744, Republic of Korea
3PHILOSOPHIA Inc., 1 Gwanak Road, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744, Republic of Korea

Received 10 July 2012; Revised 7 September 2012; Accepted 11 September 2012

Academic Editor: Iztok Tiselj

Copyright © 2012 Mohammad Nazififard et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Turbulent forced convection flow of Al2O3/water nanofluid in a single-bare subchannel of a typical pressurized water reactor is numerically analyzed. The single-phase model is adopted to simulate the nanofluid convection of 1% and 4% by volume concentration. The renormalization group k-ε model is used to simulate turbulence in ANSYS FLUENT 12.1. Results show that the heat transfer increases with nanoparticle volume concentrations in the subchannel geometry. The highest heat transfer rates are detected, for each concentration, corresponding to the highest Reynolds number Re. The maximum heat transfer enhancement at the center of a subchannel formed by heated rods is ~15% for the particle volume concentration of 4% corresponding to Re = 80,000. The friction factor shows a reasonable agreement with the classical correlation used for such normal fluid as the Blasius formula. The result reveals that the Al2O3/water pressure drop along the subchannel increases by about 14% and 98% for volume concentrations of 1% and 4%, respectively, given Re compared to the base fluid. Coupled thermohydrodynamic and neutronic investigations are further needed to streamline the nanoparticles and to optimize their concentration.